Information for Patients
Adrenal Gland Disorders
The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live without, including sex hormones and cortisol. Cortisol helps you respond to stress and has many other important functions.
With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not enough hormones. In Cushing's syndrome, there's too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. Some people are born unable to make enough cortisol.
Causes of adrenal gland disorders include
- Genetic mutations
- Tumors including pheochromocytomas
- A problem in another gland, such as the pituitary, which helps to regulate the adrenal gland
- Certain medicines
Treatment depends on which problem you have. Surgery or medicines can treat many adrenal gland disorders.
NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of pregnancy. One out of every 33 babies in the United States is born with a birth defect.
A birth defect may affect how the body looks, works or both. Some birth defects like cleft lip or neural tube defects are structural problems that can be easy to see. To find others, like heart defects, doctors use special tests. Birth defects can range from mild to severe. Causes can include
- Exposures to medicines or chemicals. For example, alcohol abuse can cause fetal alcohol syndrome.
- Infections during pregnancy
- Certain medicines. Before you get pregnant, talk to your health care provider about any medicines you take.
- Not getting enough of certain nutrients. For example, not getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy is a key factor in causing neural tube defects.
For most birth defects, the cause is unknown.
Health care providers can diagnose certain birth defects during pregnancy, with prenatal tests. That's why it important to get regular prenatal care. Other birth defects may not be found until after the baby is born. Sometimes the defect is obvious right away. Other times, the health care provider may not discover it until later in life.
Babies with birth defects often need special care and treatments. The treatments may include surgery, medicines, assistive devices, and therapies.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
21-hydroxylase deficiency 21-hydroxylase deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and produce a variety of hormones that regulate many essential functions in the body. In people with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, the adrenal glands produce excess androgens, which are male sex hormones.There are three types of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Two types are classic forms, known as the salt-wasting and simple virilizing types. The third type is called the non-classic type. The salt-wasting type is the most severe, the simple virilizing type is less severe, and the non-classic type is the least severe form.Males and females with either classic form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency tend to have an early growth spurt, but their final adult height is usually shorter than others in their family. Additionally, affected individuals may have a reduced ability to have biological children (decreased fertility). Females may also develop excessive body hair growth (hirsutism), male pattern baldness, and irregular menstruation.Approximately 75 percent of individuals with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency have the salt-wasting type. Hormone production is extremely low in this form of the disorder. Affected individuals lose large amounts of sodium in their urine, which can be life-threatening in early infancy. Babies with the salt-wasting type can experience poor feeding, weight loss, dehydration, and vomiting. Individuals with the simple virilizing form do not experience salt loss.In both the salt-wasting and simple virilizing forms of this disorder, females typically have external genitalia that do not look clearly male or female (ambiguous genitalia). Males usually have normal genitalia, but the testes may be small.Females with the non-classic type of 21-hydroxylase deficiency have normal female genitalia. As affected females get older, they may experience hirsutism, male pattern baldness, irregular menstruation, and decreased fertility. Males with the non-classic type may have early beard growth and small testes. Some individuals with this type of 21-hydroxylase deficiency have no symptoms of the disorder.
3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency 3-beta (β)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects hormone-producing glands including the gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males) and the adrenal glands. The gonads direct sexual development before birth and during puberty. The adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys, regulate the production of certain hormones and control salt levels in the body. People with 3β-HSD deficiency lack many of the hormones that are made in these glands. 3β-HSD deficiency is one of a group of disorders known as congenital adrenal hyperplasias that impair hormone production and disrupt sexual development and maturation.There are three types of 3β-HSD deficiency: the salt-wasting, non-salt-wasting, and non-classic types. In the salt-wasting type, hormone production is extremely low. Individuals with this type lose large amounts of sodium in their urine, which can be life-threatening. Individuals affected with the salt-wasting type are usually diagnosed soon after birth due to complications related to a lack of salt reabsorption, including dehydration, poor feeding, and vomiting. People with the non-salt-wasting type of 3β-HSD deficiency produce enough hormone to allow sodium reabsorption in the kidneys. Individuals with the non-classic type have the mildest symptoms and do not experience salt wasting.In males with any type of 3β-HSD deficiency, problems with male sex hormones lead to abnormalities of the external genitalia. These abnormalities range from having the opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis (hypospadias) to having external genitalia that do not look clearly male or female (ambiguous genitalia). The severity of the genital abnormality does not consistently depend on the type of the condition. Because of the hormone dysfunction in the testes, males with 3β-HSD deficiency are frequently unable to have biological children (infertile).Females with 3β-HSD deficiency may have slight abnormalities of the external genitalia at birth. Females affected with the non-salt-wasting or non-classic types are typically not diagnosed until mid-childhood or puberty, when they may experience irregular menstruation, premature pubic hair growth, and excessive body hair growth (hirsutism). Females with 3β-HSD deficiency have difficulty conceiving a child (impaired fertility).
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency is one of a group of disorders (collectively called congenital adrenal hyperplasia) that affect the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and produce a variety of hormones that regulate many essential functions in the body. In people with CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency, the adrenal glands produce excess androgens, which are male sex hormones.There are two types of CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency, the classic form and the non-classic form. The classic form is the more severe of the two types.Females with the classic form of CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency have external genitalia that do not look clearly male or female (atypical genitalia). However, the internal reproductive organs develop normally. Males and females with the classic form of this condition have early development of their secondary sexual characteristics such as growth of facial and pubic hair, deepening of the voice, appearance of acne, and onset of a growth spurt. The early growth spurt can prevent growth later in adolescence and lead to short stature in adulthood. In addition, approximately two-thirds of individuals with the classic form of CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency have high blood pressure (hypertension). Hypertension typically develops within the first year of life.Females with the non-classic form of CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency have normal female genitalia. As affected females get older, they may develop excessive body hair growth (hirsutism) and irregular menstruation. Males with the non-classic form of this condition do not typically have any signs or symptoms except for short stature. Hypertension is not a feature of the non-classic form of CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency.
General Equivalence Map Definitions
The ICD-10 and ICD-9 GEMs are used to facilitate linking between the diagnosis codes in ICD-9-CM and the new ICD-10-CM code set. The GEMs are the raw material from which providers, health information vendors and payers can derive specific applied mappings to meet their needs.
- Approximate Flag - The approximate flag is on, indicating that the relationship between the code in the source system and the code in the target system is an approximate equivalent.
- No Map Flag - The no map flag indicates that a code in the source system is not linked to any code in the target system.
- Combination Flag - The combination flag indicates that more than one code in the target system is required to satisfy the full equivalent meaning of a code in the source system.
Index of Diseases and Injuries Definitions
- And - The word "and" should be interpreted to mean either "and" or "or" when it appears in a title.
- Code also note - A "code also" note instructs that two codes may be required to fully describe a condition, but this note does not provide sequencing direction.
- Code first - Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology. For such conditions, the ICD-10-CM has a coding convention that requires the underlying condition be sequenced first followed by the manifestation. Wherever such a combination exists, there is a "use additional code" note at the etiology code, and a "code first" note at the manifestation code. These instructional notes indicate the proper sequencing order of the codes, etiology followed by manifestation.
- Type 1 Excludes Notes - A type 1 Excludes note is a pure excludes note. It means "NOT CODED HERE!" An Excludes1 note indicates that the code excluded should never be used at the same time as the code above the Excludes1 note. An Excludes1 is used when two conditions cannot occur together, such as a congenital form versus an acquired form of the same condition.
- Type 2 Excludes Notes - A type 2 Excludes note represents "Not included here". An excludes2 note indicates that the condition excluded is not part of the condition represented by the code, but a patient may have both conditions at the same time. When an Excludes2 note appears under a code, it is acceptable to use both the code and the excluded code together, when appropriate.
- Includes Notes - This note appears immediately under a three character code title to further define, or give examples of, the content of the category.
- Inclusion terms - List of terms is included under some codes. These terms are the conditions for which that code is to be used. The terms may be synonyms of the code title, or, in the case of "other specified" codes, the terms are a list of the various conditions assigned to that code. The inclusion terms are not necessarily exhaustive. Additional terms found only in the Alphabetic Index may also be assigned to a code.
- NEC "Not elsewhere classifiable" - This abbreviation in the Alphabetic Index represents "other specified". When a specific code is not available for a condition, the Alphabetic Index directs the coder to the "other specified” code in the Tabular List.
- NOS "Not otherwise specified" - This abbreviation is the equivalent of unspecified.
- See - The "see" instruction following a main term in the Alphabetic Index indicates that another term should be referenced. It is necessary to go to the main term referenced with the "see" note to locate the correct code.
- See Also - A "see also" instruction following a main term in the Alphabetic Index instructs that there is another main term that may also be referenced that may provide additional Alphabetic Index entries that may be useful. It is not necessary to follow the "see also" note when the original main term provides the necessary code.
- 7th Characters - Certain ICD-10-CM categories have applicable 7th characters. The applicable 7th character is required for all codes within the category, or as the notes in the Tabular List instruct. The 7th character must always be the 7th character in the data field. If a code that requires a 7th character is not 6 characters, a placeholder X must be used to fill in the empty characters.
- With - The word "with" should be interpreted to mean "associated with" or "due to" when it appears in a code title, the Alphabetic Index, or an instructional note in the Tabular List. The word "with" in the Alphabetic Index is sequenced immediately following the main term, not in alphabetical order.