Information for Patients
Also called: Carcinoma, Malignancy, Neoplasms, Tumor
Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms new cells as you need them, replacing old cells that die. Sometimes this process goes wrong. New cells grow even when you don't need them, and old cells don't die when they should. These extra cells can form a mass called a tumor. Tumors can be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors can invade nearby tissues. They can also break away and spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for where they start. For example, lung cancer starts in the lung, and breast cancer starts in the breast. The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another is called metastasis. Symptoms and treatment depend on the cancer type and how advanced it is. Most treatment plans may include surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy. Some may involve hormone therapy, immunotherapy or other types of biologic therapy, or stem cell transplantation.
NIH: National Cancer Institute
- Cancer (Medical Encyclopedia)
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- Cancer treatment -- early menopause (Medical Encyclopedia)
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- Targeted therapies for cancer (Medical Encyclopedia)
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- Your cancer care team (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Your cancer diagnosis: Do you need a second opinion? (Medical Encyclopedia)
Your endocrine system includes eight major glands throughout your body. These glands make hormones. Hormones are chemical messengers. They travel through your bloodstream to tissues or organs. Hormones work slowly and affect body processes from head to toe. These include
- Growth and development
- Metabolism - digestion, elimination, breathing, blood circulation and maintaining body temperature
- Sexual function
If your hormone levels are too high or too low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond to hormones the way it is supposed to. Stress, infection and changes in your blood's fluid and electrolyte balance can also influence hormone levels.
In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are usually treated by controlling how much hormone your body makes. Hormone supplements can help if the problem is too little of a hormone.
- Androgen insensitivity syndrome (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Endocrine glands (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Intersex (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (Medical Encyclopedia)