Information for Patients
Also called: Iron poor blood
If you have anemia, your blood does not carry enough oxygen to the rest of your body. The most common cause of anemia is not having enough iron. Your body needs iron to make hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that gives the red color to blood. It carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.
Anemia has three main causes: blood loss, lack of red blood cell production, and high rates of red blood cell destruction.
Conditions that may lead to anemia include
- Heavy periods
- Colon polyps or colon cancer
- Inherited disorders
- A diet that does not have enough iron, folic acid or vitamin B12
- Blood disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, or cancer
- Aplastic anemia, a condition that can be inherited or acquired
- G6PD deficiency, a metabolic disorder
Anemia can make you feel tired, cold, dizzy, and irritable. You may be short of breath or have a headache.
Your doctor will diagnose anemia with a physical exam and blood tests. Treatment depends on the kind of anemia you have.
NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
- Anemia (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Anemia - B12 deficiency (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Anemia caused by low iron -- infants and toddlers (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Anemia of chronic disease (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease - NIH
- Febrile/cold agglutinins (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Ferritin blood test (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Hemolytic anemia (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Iron deficiency anemia (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Pernicious anemia (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Vitamin B12 level (Medical Encyclopedia)
Urine and Urination
Your kidneys make urine by filtering wastes and extra water from your blood. The waste is called urea. Your blood carries it to the kidneys. From the kidneys, urine travels down two thin tubes called ureters to the bladder. The bladder stores urine until you are ready to urinate. It swells into a round shape when it is full and gets smaller when empty. If your urinary system is healthy, your bladder can hold up to 16 ounces (2 cups) of urine comfortably for 2 to 5 hours.
You may have problems with urination if you have
- Kidney failure
- Urinary tract infections
- An enlarged prostate
- Bladder control problems like incontinence, overactive bladder, or interstitial cystitis
- A blockage that prevents you from emptying your bladder
Some conditions may also cause you to have blood or protein in your urine. If you have a urinary problem, see your health care provider. Urinalysis and other urine tests can help to diagnose the problem. Treatment depends on the cause.
NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
- Clean catch urine sample (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Frequent or urgent urination (Medical Encyclopedia)
- RBC urine test (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Urinalysis (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Urinary catheters (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Urinary Retention - NIH (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases)
- Urinating more at night (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Urination - difficulty with flow (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Urination - painful (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Urine - bloody (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Urine 24-hour volume (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Urine odor (Medical Encyclopedia)
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is an acquired disorder that leads to the premature death and impaired production of blood cells. The disorder affects red blood cells (erythrocytes), which carry oxygen; white blood cells (leukocytes), which protect the body from infection; and platelets (thrombocytes), which are involved in blood clotting. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria affects both sexes equally, and can occur at any age, although it is most often diagnosed in young adulthood.People with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria have sudden, recurring episodes of symptoms (paroxysmal symptoms), which may be triggered by stresses on the body, such as infections or physical exertion. During these episodes, red blood cells are prematurely destroyed (hemolysis). Affected individuals may pass dark-colored urine due to the presence of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in blood. The abnormal presence of hemoglobin in the urine is called hemoglobinuria. In many, but not all cases, hemoglobinuria is most noticeable in the morning, upon passing urine that has accumulated in the bladder during the night (nocturnal).The premature destruction of red blood cells results in a deficiency of these cells in the blood (hemolytic anemia), which can cause signs and symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, abnormally pale skin (pallor), shortness of breath, and an increased heart rate. People with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria may also be prone to infections due to a deficiency of white blood cells.Abnormal platelets associated with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria can cause problems in the blood clotting process. As a result, people with this disorder may experience abnormal blood clotting (thrombosis), especially in large abdominal veins; or, less often, episodes of severe bleeding (hemorrhage).Individuals with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria are at increased risk of developing cancer in blood-forming cells (leukemia).In some cases, people who have been treated for another blood disease called aplastic anemia may develop paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.