Version 2024
No Valid Principal Dx

2024 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code R25.2

Cramp and spasm

ICD-10-CM Code:
ICD-10 Code for:
Cramp and spasm
Is Billable?
Yes - Valid for Submission
Chronic Condition Indicator: [1]
Not chronic
Code Navigator:

Code Classification

  • Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified
    • Symptoms and signs involving the nervous and musculoskeletal systems
      • Abnormal involuntary movements

R25.2 is a billable diagnosis code used to specify a medical diagnosis of cramp and spasm. The code is valid during the current fiscal year for the submission of HIPAA-covered transactions from October 01, 2023 through September 30, 2024.

According to ICD-10-CM guidelines this code should not to be used as a principal diagnosis code when a related definitive diagnosis has been established.

Approximate Synonyms

The following clinical terms are approximate synonyms or lay terms that might be used to identify the correct diagnosis code:

  • Acanthosis nigricans
  • Acanthosis nigricans and insulin resistance with muscle cramp and acral enlargement syndrome
  • Benign fasciculation-cramp syndrome
  • Bilateral cramp of muscle of lower limbs
  • Bilateral muscle cramp of upper limbs
  • Bowel spasm
  • Carney complex, trismus, pseudocamptodactyly syndrome
  • Clasp knife like increase in tone
  • Congenital hypoplasia of cerebrum
  • Cramp
  • Cramp in foot
  • Cramp in limb
  • Cramp in lower leg
  • Cramp in lower limb
  • Cramp of muscle of left lower limb
  • Cramp of muscle of left upper limb
  • Cramp of muscle of left upper limb
  • Cramp of muscle of right lower limb
  • Cramp of muscle of right upper limb
  • Cramp of muscle of right upper limb
  • Diffuse spasm
  • Disorders of spinal neurones manifest by hyperactivity
  • Early-onset progressive neurodegeneration, blindness, ataxia, spasticity syndrome
  • Hand cramps
  • Hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps syndrome
  • Hypernatremia
  • Hypomyelination with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity
  • Hypoplasia of corpus callosum
  • Insulin receptor defect
  • L1 syndrome
  • Lethal neonatal spasticity, epileptic encephalopathy syndrome
  • Local spasm
  • Masseter spasm
  • Microcephalus, brain defect, spasticity, hypernatremia syndrome
  • Muscular hypertonicity
  • Myoclonic encephalopathy
  • Myxoma of heart
  • Nocturnal muscle cramp
  • Nocturnal muscle spasm
  • Spasm
  • Spasmodic movement
  • Spastic foot
  • Spasticity
  • Spasticity as sequela of stroke
  • Tetanus with trismus
  • Trismus
  • Trismus present
  • X-linked parkinsonism with spasticity syndrome
  • X-linked spasticity, intellectual disability, epilepsy syndrome

Clinical Classification

Clinical Information

  • Acanthosis Nigricans

    a circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown-pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds. it occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder.
  • Hypernatremia

    excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (dorland, 27th ed)
  • Trismus

    spasmodic contraction of the masseter muscle resulting in forceful jaw closure. this may be seen with a variety of diseases, including tetanus, as a complication of radiation therapy, trauma, or in association with neoplastic conditions.
  • Tetanus

    a disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by clostridium tetani. tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. it may progress to the generalized form.
  • Acanthosis Nigricans

    a melanotic cutaneous lesion that develops in the axilla and other body folds. it may be idiopathic, drug-induced, or it may be associated with the presence of an endocrine disorder or malignancy.
  • Hyperandrogenism, Insulin Resistance, Acanthosis Nigricans Syndrome|HAIR-AN Syndrome

    a condition characterized by hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and acanthosis nigricans, typically associated with obesity in teenage girls. it is considered to be a subtype of polycystic ovarian syndrome, but may occur in male individuals. etiology is unclear, but some cases may be associated with mutations affecting the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor.
  • Insulin Resistant Diabetes Mellitus with Acanthosis Nigricans and Hyperandrogenism|Type A Insulin Resistance Syndrome

    a syndrome of insulin resistance caused by mutation(s) in the insr gene, encoding the insulin receptor. this condition is characterized by a clinical triad of hyperinsulinemia, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperandrogenism without lipodystrophy. this is the least severe of a spectrum of disorders; the other two conditions are rabson-mendenhall syndrome and donohoe syndrome.
  • Grade 1 Hypernatremia, CTCAE|Grade 1 Hypernatremia

    >uln-150 mmol/l
  • Grade 2 Hypernatremia, CTCAE|Grade 2 Hypernatremia

    >150-155 mmol/l; intervention initiated
  • Grade 3 Hypernatremia, CTCAE|Grade 3 Hypernatremia

    >155-160 mmol/l; hospitalization indicated
  • Grade 4 Hypernatremia, CTCAE|Grade 4 Hypernatremia

    >160 mmol/l; life-threatening consequences
  • Grade 5 Hypernatremia, CTCAE|Grade 5 Hypernatremia

  • Hypernatremia

    higher than normal levels of sodium in the circulating blood.
  • Hypernatremia, CTCAE|Hypernatremia|Hypernatremia

    a disorder characterized by laboratory test results that indicate an elevation in the concentration of sodium in the blood.
  • Grade 1 Trismus, CTCAE|CTCAE Grade 1 Trismus (difficulty, restriction or pain when opening mouth)|Grade 1 Trismus|Grade 1 Trismus (difficulty, restriction or pain when opening mouth)

    decreased rom (range of motion) without impaired eating
  • Grade 2 Trismus, CTCAE|CTCAE Grade 2 Trismus (difficulty, restriction or pain when opening mouth)|Grade 2 Trismus|Grade 2 Trismus (difficulty, restriction or pain when opening mouth)

    decreased rom requiring small bites, soft foods or purees
  • Grade 3 Trismus, CTCAE|CTCAE Grade 3 Trismus (difficulty, restriction or pain when opening mouth)|Grade 3 Trismus|Grade 3 Trismus (difficulty, restriction or pain when opening mouth)

    decreased rom with inability to adequately aliment or hydrate orally
  • Trismus

    lack of ability to open the mouth fully due to decreased range of motion of the muscles of mastication. it may be a symptom of tetanus.
  • Trismus, CTCAE|Trismus|Trismus|Trismus (difficulty, restriction or pain when opening mouth)

    a disorder characterized by lack of ability to open the mouth fully due to a decrease in the range of motion of the muscles of mastication.

Tabular List of Diseases and Injuries

The following annotation back-references are applicable to this diagnosis code. The Tabular List of Diseases and Injuries is a list of ICD-10-CM codes, organized "head to toe" into chapters and sections with coding notes and guidance for inclusions, exclusions, descriptions and more.

Type 2 Excludes

Type 2 Excludes
A type 2 excludes note represents "Not included here". An excludes2 note indicates that the condition excluded is not part of the condition represented by the code, but a patient may have both conditions at the same time. When an Excludes2 note appears under a code, it is acceptable to use both the code and the excluded code together, when appropriate.

Index to Diseases and Injuries References

The following annotation back-references for this diagnosis code are found in the injuries and diseases index. The Index to Diseases and Injuries is an alphabetical listing of medical terms, with each term mapped to one or more ICD-10-CM code(s).

Convert R25.2 to ICD-9-CM

  • ICD-9-CM Code: 729.82 - Cramp in limb
    Approximate Flag - The approximate mapping means there is not an exact match between the ICD-10 and ICD-9 codes and the mapped code is not a precise representation of the original code.
  • ICD-9-CM Code: 781.0 - Abn involun movement NEC
    Approximate Flag - The approximate mapping means there is not an exact match between the ICD-10 and ICD-9 codes and the mapped code is not a precise representation of the original code.

Patient Education

Muscle Cramps

What are muscle cramps?

Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They are very common and often occur after exercise. Some people get muscle cramps, especially leg cramps, at night. They can be painful, and they may last a few seconds to several minutes.

You can have a cramp in any muscle, but they happen most often in the:

  • Thighs
  • Feet
  • Hands
  • Arms
  • Abdomen
  • Area along your ribcage

What causes muscle cramps?

Causes of muscle cramps include:

  • Straining or overusing a muscle. This is the most common cause.
  • Compression of your nerves, from problems such as a spinal cord injury or a pinched nerve in the neck or back
  • Dehydration
  • Low levels of electrolytes such as magnesium, potassium, or calcium
  • Not enough blood getting to your muscles
  • Pregnancy
  • Certain medicines
  • Getting dialysis

Sometimes the cause of muscle cramps is unknown.

Who is at risk for muscle cramps?

Anyone can get muscle cramps, but they are more common in some people:

  • Older adults
  • People who are overweight
  • Athletes
  • Pregnant women
  • People with certain medical conditions, such as thyroid and nerve disorders

When do I need to see a health care provider for muscle cramps?

Muscle cramps are usually harmless, and they go away after a few minutes. But you should contact your health care provider if the cramps:

  • Are severe
  • Happen frequently
  • Don't get better with stretching and drinking enough fluids
  • Last a long time
  • Are accompanied by swelling, redness, or a feeling of warmth
  • Are accompanied by muscle weakness

What are the treatments for muscle cramps?

You usually don't need treatment for muscle cramps. You may be able to find some relief from cramps by:

  • Stretching or gently massaging the muscle
  • Applying heat when the muscle is tight and ice when the muscle is sore
  • Getting more fluids if you are dehydrated

If another medical problem is causing the cramps, treating that problem will likely help. There are medicines that providers sometimes prescribe to prevent cramps, but they are not always effective and may cause side effects. Talk to your provider about the risks and benefits of medicines.

Can muscle cramps be prevented?

To prevent muscle cramps, you can:

  • Stretch your muscles, especially before exercising. If you often get leg cramps at night, stretch your leg muscles before bed.
  • Drink plenty of liquids. If you do intense exercise or exercise in the heat, sports drinks can help you replace electrolytes.

[Learn More in MedlinePlus]

Code History

  • FY 2024 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2023 through 9/30/2024
  • FY 2023 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2022 through 9/30/2023
  • FY 2022 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2021 through 9/30/2022
  • FY 2021 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2020 through 9/30/2021
  • FY 2020 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2019 through 9/30/2020
  • FY 2019 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2018 through 9/30/2019
  • FY 2018 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2017 through 9/30/2018
  • FY 2017 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2016 through 9/30/2017
  • FY 2016 - New Code, effective from 10/1/2015 through 9/30/2016. This was the first year ICD-10-CM was implemented into the HIPAA code set.


[1] Not chronic - A diagnosis code that does not fit the criteria for chronic condition (duration, ongoing medical treatment, and limitations) is considered not chronic. Some codes designated as not chronic are acute conditions. Other diagnosis codes that indicate a possible chronic condition, but for which the duration of the illness is not specified in the code description (i.e., we do not know the condition has lasted 12 months or longer) also are considered not chronic.