Information for Patients
A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of pregnancy. One out of every 33 babies in the United States is born with a birth defect.
A birth defect may affect how the body looks, works or both. Some birth defects like cleft lip or neural tube defects are structural problems that can be easy to see. To find others, like heart defects, doctors use special tests. Birth defects can range from mild to severe. Causes can include
- Exposures to medicines or chemicals. For example, alcohol abuse can cause fetal alcohol syndrome.
- Infections during pregnancy
- Certain medicines. Before you get pregnant, talk to your health care provider about any medicines you take.
- Not getting enough of certain nutrients. For example, not getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy is a key factor in causing neural tube defects.
For most birth defects, the cause is unknown.
Health care providers can diagnose certain birth defects during pregnancy, with prenatal tests. That's why it important to get regular prenatal care. Other birth defects may not be found until after the baby is born. Sometimes the defect is obvious right away. Other times, the health care provider may not discover it until later in life.
Babies with birth defects often need special care and treatments. The treatments may include surgery, medicines, assistive devices, and therapies.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Hip Injuries and Disorders
Your hip is the joint where your femur (thigh bone) meets your pelvis (hip bone). There are two main parts: a ball at the end of the femur, which fits in a socket in the pelvis. Your hip is known as a ball-and-socket joint. This is because you have a ball at the end of your femur, and it fits into a socket in your pelvis. This makes your hips very stable and allows for a wide range of motion. When they are healthy, it takes great force to hurt them. However, playing sports, running, overuse, or falling can sometimes lead to hip injuries such as
Certain diseases also lead to hip injuries or problems. Osteoarthritis can cause pain and limited motion. Osteoporosis of the hip causes weak bones that break easily. Both of these are common in older people.
Another problem is hip dysplasia, where the ball at the end of the femur is loose in the hip socket. It can cause hip dislocation. Babies who have hip dysplasia are usually born with it, but sometimes they develop it later.
Treatment for hip disorders may include rest, medicines, physical therapy, or surgery, including hip replacement.