Degeneration, degenerative

Alphabetical Index

Use the alphabetical index for the main term degeneration, degenerative to review the available sub terms and properly select the ICD-10 code with the highest degree of specificity. Instructional notations will guide the coder with information such as "see", "see also", "with", "without", "due to", and "code by site".

  • Degeneration, degenerative
    • adrenal (capsule) (fatty) (gland) (hyaline) (infectional) - E27.8 Other specified disorders of adrenal gland
    • amyloid - See Also: Amyloidosis; - E85.9 Amyloidosis, unspecified
    • anterior cornua, spinal cord - G12.29 Other motor neuron disease
    • anterior labral - S43.49 Other sprain of shoulder joint
    • aorta, aortic - I70.0 Atherosclerosis of aorta
      • fatty - I77.89 Other specified disorders of arteries and arterioles
    • aortic valve (heart) - See: Endocarditis, aortic;
    • arteriovascular - See: Arteriosclerosis;
    • artery, arterial (atheromatous) (calcareous) - See Also: Arteriosclerosis;
      • cerebral, amyloid - E85.4 Organ-limited amyloidosis
      • medial - See: Arteriosclerosis, extremities;
    • articular cartilage NEC - See: Derangement, joint, articular cartilage, by site;
    • atheromatous - See: Arteriosclerosis;
    • basal nuclei or ganglia - G23.9 Degenerative disease of basal ganglia, unspecified
      • specified NEC - G23.8 Other specified degenerative diseases of basal ganglia
    • bone NEC - See: Disorder, bone, specified type NEC;
    • brachial plexus - G54.0 Brachial plexus disorders
    • brain (cortical) (progressive) - G31.9 Degenerative disease of nervous system, unspecified
      • alcoholic - G31.2 Degeneration of nervous system due to alcohol
      • arteriosclerotic - I67.2 Cerebral atherosclerosis
      • childhood - G31.9 Degenerative disease of nervous system, unspecified
        • specified NEC - G31.89 Other specified degenerative diseases of nervous system
      • cystic - G31.89 Other specified degenerative diseases of nervous system
        • congenital - Q04.6 Congenital cerebral cysts
      • in
        • alcoholism - G31.2 Degeneration of nervous system due to alcohol
        • beriberi - E51.2 Wernicke's encephalopathy
        • cerebrovascular disease - I67.9 Cerebrovascular disease, unspecified
        • congenital hydrocephalus - Q03.9 Congenital hydrocephalus, unspecified
          • with spina bifida - See Also: Spina bifida;
        • Fabry-Anderson disease - E75.21 Fabry (-Anderson) disease
        • Gaucher's disease - E75.22 Gaucher disease
        • Hunter's syndrome - E76.1 Mucopolysaccharidosis, type II
        • lipidosis
          • cerebral - E75.4 Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis
          • generalized - E75.6 Lipid storage disorder, unspecified
        • mucopolysaccharidosis - See: Mucopolysaccharidosis;
        • myxedema - E03.9 Hypothyroidism, unspecified
        • neoplastic disease - See Also: Neoplasm; - D49.6 Neoplasm of unspecified behavior of brain
        • Niemann-Pick disease - E75.249 Niemann-Pick disease, unspecified
        • sphingolipidosis - E75.3 Sphingolipidosis, unspecified
        • vitamin B12 deficiency - E53.8 Deficiency of other specified B group vitamins
      • senile NEC - G31.1 Senile degeneration of brain, not elsewhere classified
    • breast - N64.89 Other specified disorders of breast
    • Bruch's membrane - See: Degeneration, choroid;
    • capillaries (fatty) - I78.8 Other diseases of capillaries
      • amyloid - E85.89 Other amyloidosis
    • cardiac - See Also: Degeneration, myocardial;
      • valve, valvular - See: Endocarditis;
    • cardiorenal - See: Hypertension, cardiorenal;
    • cardiovascular - See Also: Disease, cardiovascular;
      • renal - See: Hypertension, cardiorenal;
    • cerebellar NOS - G31.9 Degenerative disease of nervous system, unspecified
      • alcoholic - G31.2 Degeneration of nervous system due to alcohol
      • primary (hereditary) (sporadic) - G11.9 Hereditary ataxia, unspecified
    • cerebral - See: Degeneration, brain;
    • cerebrovascular - I67.9 Cerebrovascular disease, unspecified
      • due to hypertension - I67.4 Hypertensive encephalopathy
    • cervical plexus - G54.2 Cervical root disorders, not elsewhere classified
    • cervix - N88.8 Other specified noninflammatory disorders of cervix uteri
      • due to radiation (intended effect) - N88.8 Other specified noninflammatory disorders of cervix uteri
        • adverse effect or misadventure - N99.89 Other postprocedural complications and disorders of genitourinary system
    • chamber angle - H21.21 Degeneration of chamber angle
    • changes, spine or vertebra - See: Spondylosis;
    • chorioretinal - See Also: Degeneration, choroid;
      • hereditary - H31.20 Hereditary choroidal dystrophy, unspecified
    • choroid (colloid) (drusen) - H31.10 Unspecified choroidal degeneration
      • atrophy - See: Atrophy, choroidal;
      • hereditary - See: Dystrophy, choroidal, hereditary;
    • ciliary body - H21.22 Degeneration of ciliary body
    • cochlear
    • combined (spinal cord) (subacute) - E53.8 Deficiency of other specified B group vitamins
      • in (due to)
        • vitamin B12 deficiency - E53.8 Deficiency of other specified B group vitamins
          • anemia - D51.9 Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, unspecified
      • with anemia (pernicious) - D51.0 Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia due to intrinsic factor deficiency
        • due to dietary vitamin B12 deficiency - D51.3 Other dietary vitamin B12 deficiency anemia
    • conjunctiva - H11.10 Unspecified conjunctival degenerations
      • concretions - See: Concretion, conjunctiva;
      • deposits - See: Deposit, conjunctiva;
      • pigmentations - See: Pigmentation, conjunctiva;
      • pinguecula - See: Pinguecula;
      • xerosis - See: Xerosis, conjunctiva;
    • cornea - H18.40 Unspecified corneal degeneration
      • calcerous - H18.43 Other calcerous corneal degeneration
        • band keratopathy - H18.42 Band keratopathy
      • familial, hereditary - See: Dystrophy, cornea;
      • hyaline (of old scars) - H18.49 Other corneal degeneration
      • keratomalacia - See: Keratomalacia;
      • nodular - H18.45 Nodular corneal degeneration
      • peripheral - H18.46 Peripheral corneal degeneration
      • senile - H18.41 Arcus senilis
      • specified type NEC - H18.49 Other corneal degeneration
    • cortical (cerebellar) (parenchymatous) - G31.89 Other specified degenerative diseases of nervous system
      • alcoholic - G31.2 Degeneration of nervous system due to alcohol
      • diffuse, due to arteriopathy - I67.2 Cerebral atherosclerosis
    • corticobasal - G31.85 Corticobasal degeneration
    • cutis - L98.8 Other specified disorders of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
      • amyloid - E85.4 Organ-limited amyloidosis
    • dental pulp - K04.2 Pulp degeneration
    • disc disease - See: Degeneration, intervertebral disc NEC;
    • dorsolateral (spinal cord) - See: Degeneration, combined;
    • extrapyramidal - G25.9 Extrapyramidal and movement disorder, unspecified
    • eye, macular - See Also: Degeneration, macula;
      • congenital or hereditary - See: Dystrophy, retina;
    • facet joints - See: Spondylosis;
    • fatty
      • liver NEC - K76.0 Fatty (change of) liver, not elsewhere classified
        • alcoholic - K70.0 Alcoholic fatty liver
    • grey matter (brain) (Alpers') - G31.81 Alpers disease
    • heart - See Also: Degeneration, myocardial;
      • amyloid - E85.4 Organ-limited amyloidosis
      • atheromatous - See: Disease, heart, ischemic, atherosclerotic;
      • ischemic - See: Disease, heart, ischemic;
    • hepatolenticular (Wilson's) - E83.01 Wilson's disease
    • hepatorenal - K76.7 Hepatorenal syndrome
    • hyaline (diffuse) (generalized)
      • localized - See: Degeneration, by site;
    • infrapatellar fat pad - M79.4 Hypertrophy of (infrapatellar) fat pad
    • intervertebral disc NOS
      • cervical, cervicothoracic - See: Disorder, disc, cervical, degeneration;
        • with
          • myelopathy - See: Disorder, disc, cervical, with myelopathy;
          • neuritis, radiculitis or radiculopathy - See: Disorder, disc, cervical, with neuritis;
      • lumbar region - M51.36 Other intervertebral disc degeneration, lumbar region
        • with
          • myelopathy - M51.06 Intervertebral disc disorders with myelopathy, lumbar region
          • neuritis, radiculitis, radiculopathy or sciatica - M51.16 Intervertebral disc disorders with radiculopathy, lumbar region
      • lumbosacral region - M51.37 Other intervertebral disc degeneration, lumbosacral region
        • with
          • neuritis, radiculitis, radiculopathy or sciatica - M51.17 Intervertebral disc disorders with radiculopathy, lumbosacral region
      • sacrococcygeal region - M53.3 Sacrococcygeal disorders, not elsewhere classified
      • thoracic region - M51.34 Other intervertebral disc degeneration, thoracic region
        • with
          • myelopathy - M51.04 Intervertebral disc disorders with myelopathy, thoracic region
          • neuritis, radiculitis, radiculopathy - M51.14 Intervertebral disc disorders with radiculopathy, thoracic region
      • thoracolumbar region - M51.35 Other intervertebral disc degeneration, thoracolumbar region
        • with
          • myelopathy - M51.05 Intervertebral disc disorders with myelopathy, thoracolumbar region
          • neuritis, radiculitis, radiculopathy - M51.15 Intervertebral disc disorders with radiculopathy, thoracolumbar region
      • with
        • myelopathy - See: Disorder, disc, with, myelopathy;
        • radiculitis or radiculopathy - See: Disorder, disc, with, radiculopathy;
    • intestine, amyloid - E85.4 Organ-limited amyloidosis
    • iris (pigmentary) - H21.23 Degeneration of iris (pigmentary)
    • ischemic - See: Ischemia;
    • joint disease - See: Osteoarthritis;
    • kidney - N28.89 Other specified disorders of kidney and ureter
      • amyloid - E85.4 Organ-limited amyloidosis
      • cystic, congenital - Q61.9 Cystic kidney disease, unspecified
      • fatty - N28.89 Other specified disorders of kidney and ureter
      • polycystic - Q61.3 Polycystic kidney, unspecified
        • adult type (autosomal dominant) - Q61.2 Polycystic kidney, adult type
        • infantile type (autosomal recessive) NEC - Q61.19 Other polycystic kidney, infantile type
          • collecting duct dilatation - Q61.11 Cystic dilatation of collecting ducts
    • Kuhnt-Junius - See Also: Degeneration, macula; - H35.32 Exudative age-related macular degeneration
    • lens - See: Cataract;
    • lenticular (familial) (progressive) (Wilson's) (with cirrhosis of liver) - E83.01 Wilson's disease
    • liver (diffuse) NEC - K76.89 Other specified diseases of liver
      • amyloid - E85.4 Organ-limited amyloidosis
      • cystic - K76.89 Other specified diseases of liver
        • congenital - Q44.6 Cystic disease of liver
      • fatty NEC - K76.0 Fatty (change of) liver, not elsewhere classified
        • alcoholic - K70.0 Alcoholic fatty liver
      • hypertrophic - K76.89 Other specified diseases of liver
      • parenchymatous, acute or subacute - K72.00 Acute and subacute hepatic failure without coma
        • with coma - K72.01 Acute and subacute hepatic failure with coma
      • pigmentary - K76.89 Other specified diseases of liver
      • toxic (acute) - K71.9 Toxic liver disease, unspecified
    • lung - J98.4 Other disorders of lung
    • lymph gland - I89.8 Other specified noninfective disorders of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes
      • hyaline - I89.8 Other specified noninfective disorders of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes
    • membranous labyrinth, congenital (causing impairment of hearing) - Q16.5 Congenital malformation of inner ear
    • meniscus - See: Derangement, meniscus;
    • mitral - See: Insufficiency, mitral;
    • Mönckeberg's - See: Arteriosclerosis, extremities;
    • motor centers, senile - G31.1 Senile degeneration of brain, not elsewhere classified
    • multi-system - G90.3 Multi-system degeneration of the autonomic nervous system
    • mural - See: Degeneration, myocardial;
    • muscle (fatty) (fibrous) (hyaline) (progressive) - M62.89 Other specified disorders of muscle
      • heart - See: Degeneration, myocardial;
    • myelin, central nervous system - G37.9 Demyelinating disease of central nervous system, unspecified
    • myocardial, myocardium (fatty) (hyaline) (senile) - I51.5 Myocardial degeneration
      • hypertensive - See: Hypertension, heart;
      • rheumatic - See: Degeneration, myocardial, with rheumatic fever;
      • syphilitic - A52.06 Other syphilitic heart involvement
      • with rheumatic fever (conditions in I00) - I09.0 Rheumatic myocarditis
        • active, acute or subacute - I01.2 Acute rheumatic myocarditis
          • with chorea - I02.0 Rheumatic chorea with heart involvement
        • inactive or quiescent (with chorea) - I09.0 Rheumatic myocarditis
    • nasal sinus (mucosa) - J32.9 Chronic sinusitis, unspecified
      • frontal - J32.1 Chronic frontal sinusitis
      • maxillary - J32.0 Chronic maxillary sinusitis
    • nerve - See: Disorder, nerve;
    • nervous system - G31.9 Degenerative disease of nervous system, unspecified
      • alcoholic - G31.2 Degeneration of nervous system due to alcohol
      • amyloid - E85.4 Organ-limited amyloidosis
      • autonomic - G90.9 Disorder of the autonomic nervous system, unspecified
      • fatty - G31.89 Other specified degenerative diseases of nervous system
      • specified NEC - G31.89 Other specified degenerative diseases of nervous system
    • nipple - N64.89 Other specified disorders of breast
    • olivopontocerebellar (hereditary) (familial) - G23.8 Other specified degenerative diseases of basal ganglia
    • osseous labyrinth
    • ovary - N83.8 Other noninflammatory disorders of ovary, fallopian tube and broad ligament
      • cystic - N83.20 Unspecified ovarian cysts
      • microcystic - N83.20 Unspecified ovarian cysts
    • pallidal pigmentary (progressive) - G23.0 Hallervorden-Spatz disease
    • pancreas - K86.89 Other specified diseases of pancreas
      • tuberculous - A18.83 Tuberculosis of digestive tract organs, not elsewhere classified
    • penis - N48.89 Other specified disorders of penis
    • pigmentary (diffuse) (general)
      • localized - See: Degeneration, by site;
      • pallidal (progressive) - G23.0 Hallervorden-Spatz disease
    • pineal gland - E34.8 Other specified endocrine disorders
    • pituitary (gland) - E23.6 Other disorders of pituitary gland
    • popliteal fat pad - M79.4 Hypertrophy of (infrapatellar) fat pad
    • posterolateral (spinal cord) - See: Degeneration, combined;
    • pulmonary valve (heart) - I37.8 Other nonrheumatic pulmonary valve disorders
    • pulp (tooth) - K04.2 Pulp degeneration
    • pupillary margin - H21.24 Degeneration of pupillary margin
    • renal - See: Degeneration, kidney;
    • retina - H35.9 Unspecified retinal disorder
      • hereditary (cerebroretinal) (congenital) (juvenile) (macula) (peripheral) (pigmentary) - See: Dystrophy, retina;
      • Kuhnt-Junius - See Also: Degeneration, macula; - H35.32 Exudative age-related macular degeneration
      • macula (cystic) (exudative) (hole) (nonexudative) (pseudohole) (senile) (toxic) - See: Degeneration, macula;
      • peripheral - H35.40 Unspecified peripheral retinal degeneration
        • lattice - H35.41 Lattice degeneration of retina
        • microcystoid - H35.42 Microcystoid degeneration of retina
        • paving stone - H35.43 Paving stone degeneration of retina
        • secondary
          • pigmentary - H35.45 Secondary pigmentary degeneration
          • vitreoretinal - H35.46 Secondary vitreoretinal degeneration
        • senile reticular - H35.44 Age-related reticular degeneration of retina
      • pigmentary (primary) - See Also: Dystrophy, retina;
        • secondary - See: Degeneration, retina, peripheral, secondary;
      • posterior pole - See: Degeneration, macula;
    • saccule, congenital (causing impairment of hearing) - Q16.5 Congenital malformation of inner ear
    • senile - R54 Age-related physical debility
      • brain - G31.1 Senile degeneration of brain, not elsewhere classified
      • cardiac, heart or myocardium - See: Degeneration, myocardial;
      • motor centers - G31.1 Senile degeneration of brain, not elsewhere classified
      • vascular - See: Arteriosclerosis;
    • sinus (cystic) - See Also: Sinusitis;
      • polypoid - J33.1 Polypoid sinus degeneration
    • skin - L98.8 Other specified disorders of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
      • amyloid - E85.4 Organ-limited amyloidosis
      • colloid - L98.8 Other specified disorders of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
    • spinal (cord) - G31.89 Other specified degenerative diseases of nervous system
      • amyloid - E85.4 Organ-limited amyloidosis
      • combined (subacute) - See: Degeneration, combined;
      • dorsolateral - See: Degeneration, combined;
      • familial NEC - G31.89 Other specified degenerative diseases of nervous system
      • fatty - G31.89 Other specified degenerative diseases of nervous system
      • funicular - See: Degeneration, combined;
      • posterolateral - See: Degeneration, combined;
      • subacute combined - See: Degeneration, combined;
      • tuberculous - A17.81 Tuberculoma of brain and spinal cord
    • spleen - D73.0 Hyposplenism
      • amyloid - E85.4 Organ-limited amyloidosis
    • stomach - K31.89 Other diseases of stomach and duodenum
    • striatonigral - G23.2 Striatonigral degeneration
    • suprarenal (capsule) (gland) - E27.8 Other specified disorders of adrenal gland
    • synovial membrane (pulpy) - See: Disorder, synovium, specified type NEC;
    • tapetoretinal - See: Dystrophy, retina;
    • thymus (gland) - E32.8 Other diseases of thymus
      • fatty - E32.8 Other diseases of thymus
    • thyroid (gland) - E07.89 Other specified disorders of thyroid
    • tricuspid (heart) (valve) - I07.9 Rheumatic tricuspid valve disease, unspecified
    • tuberculous NEC - See: Tuberculosis;
    • turbinate - J34.89 Other specified disorders of nose and nasal sinuses
    • uterus (cystic) - N85.8 Other specified noninflammatory disorders of uterus
    • vascular (senile) - See: Arteriosclerosis;
      • hypertensive - See: Hypertension;
    • vitreoretinal, secondary - See: Degeneration, retina, peripheral, secondary, vitreoretinal;
    • vitreous (body) - H43.81 Vitreous degeneration
    • Wallerian - See: Disorder, nerve;
    • Wilson's hepatolenticular - E83.01 Wilson's disease

Clinical Terms

The following are some of the clinical term definitions related or applicable to degeneration, degenerative within the ICD-10 index for Diseases and Injuries.

Alcoholics: Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.

Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)

Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.

Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.

Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.

Beriberi: A disease caused by a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1) and characterized by polyneuritis, cardiac pathology, and edema. The epidemic form is found primarily in areas in which white (polished) rice is the staple food, as in Japan, China, the Philippines, India, and other countries of southeast Asia. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.

Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.

Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.

Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.

Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.

Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.

Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.

Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)

Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)

Gaucher Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid beta-glucosidase (GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) leading to intralysosomal accumulation of glycosylceramide mainly in cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. The characteristic Gaucher cells, glycosphingolipid-filled HISTIOCYTES, displace normal cells in BONE MARROW and visceral organs causing skeletal deterioration, hepatosplenomegaly, and organ dysfunction. There are several subtypes based on the presence and severity of neurological involvement.

Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.

Hyalin: A clear, homogenous, structureless, eosinophilic substance occurring in pathological degeneration of tissues.

Joint Diseases: Diseases involving the JOINTS.

Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.

Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.

Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.

Meniscus: Crescent-shaped cartilaginous tissue interposed between two articulating bones.

Mucopolysaccharidoses: Group of lysosomal storage diseases each caused by an inherited deficiency of an enzyme involved in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (mucopolysaccharides). The diseases are progressive and often display a wide spectrum of clinical severity within one enzyme deficiency.

Myxedema: A condition characterized by a dry, waxy type of swelling (EDEMA) with abnormal deposits of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and other tissues. It is caused by a deficiency of THYROID HORMONES. The skin becomes puffy around the eyes and on the cheeks. The face is dull and expressionless with thickened nose and lips.

Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)

Nipples: The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.

Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.

Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.

Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.

Pineal Gland: A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.

Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.

Sacrococcygeal Region: The body region between (and flanking) the SACRUM and COCCYX.

Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.

Sphingolipidoses: A group of inherited metabolic disorders characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of SPHINGOLIPIDS primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and to a variable degree in the visceral organs. They are classified by the enzyme defect in the degradation pathway and the substrate accumulation (or storage). Clinical features vary in subtypes but neurodegeneration is a common sign.

Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.

Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.

Turbinates: The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.