Information for Patients
Also called: Human papillomavirus
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a group of related viruses. They can cause warts on different parts of your body. There are more than 200 types. About 40 of those types affect the genitals. They are spread through sexual contact with an infected partner. Some of those can put you at risk for cancer.
There are two categories of sexually-transmitted HPV. Low-risk HPV can cause genital warts. High-risk HPV can cause various cancers:
- Cervical cancer
- Anal cancer
- Some types of oral and throat cancer
- Vulvar cancer
- Vaginal cancer
- Penile cancer
HPV infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Anyone who has ever been sexually active can get HPV, but you are more likely to get it if you have had many sex partners or have had sex with someone who has had many partners. Because it is so common, most people get HPV infections shortly after becoming sexually active for the first time.
Some people develop genital warts from HPV infection, but others have no symptoms. Most high-risk HPV infections go away within 1 to 2 years and do not cause cancer. Some HPV infections, however, can persist for many years. Those infections can lead to cell changes that, if not treated, may become cancerous.
In women, Pap tests can detect changes in the cervix that might lead to cancer. Pap tests, along with HPV tests, are used in cervical cancer screening.
Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV. The most reliable way to avoid infection is to not have anal, vaginal, or oral sex. Vaccines can protect against several types of HPV, including some that can cause cancer.
NIH: National Cancer Institute
- Cervical cancer -- screening and prevention (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Condom Fact Sheet in Brief (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- HPV and Cancer (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- HPV DNA test (Medical Encyclopedia)
- HPV vaccine (Medical Encyclopedia)
- HPV Vaccine - Gardasil: What You Need to Know (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Pap and HPV Testing - NIH (National Cancer Institute)
Also called: Screening tests
Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier to treat. You can get some screenings in your doctor's office. Others need special equipment, so you may need to go to a different office or clinic.
Some conditions that doctors commonly screen for include
- Breast cancer and cervical cancer in women
- Colorectal cancer
- High blood pressure
- High cholesterol
- Overweight and obesity
- Prostate cancer in men
Which tests you need depends on your age, your sex, your family history, and whether you have risk factors for certain diseases. After a screening test, ask when you will get the results and whom to talk to about them.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
General Equivalence Map Definitions
The ICD-10 and ICD-9 GEMs are used to facilitate linking between the diagnosis codes in ICD-9-CM and the new ICD-10-CM code set. The GEMs are the raw material from which providers, health information vendors and payers can derive specific applied mappings to meet their needs.
- Approximate Flag - The approximate flag is on, indicating that the relationship between the code in the source system and the code in the target system is an approximate equivalent.
- No Map Flag - The no map flag indicates that a code in the source system is not linked to any code in the target system.
- Combination Flag - The combination flag indicates that more than one code in the target system is required to satisfy the full equivalent meaning of a code in the source system.