Information for Patients
Bleeding is the loss of blood. It can happen outside or inside the body. You may bleed when you get a cut or other wound. Bleeding can also be due to an injury to internal organs.
Sometimes bleeding can cause other problems. A bruise is bleeding under the skin. Some strokes are caused by bleeding in the brain. Other bleeding, such as gastrointestinal bleeding, coughing up blood, or vaginal bleeding, can be a symptom of a disease.
Normally, when you bleed, your blood forms clots to stop the bleeding. Severe bleeding may require first aid or a trip to the emergency room. If you have a bleeding disorder, your blood does not form clots normally.
A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including
- Arthritis - inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, the joint can become severely damaged.
- Bursitis - inflammation of a fluid-filled sac that cushions the joint
- Dislocations - injuries that force the ends of the bones out of position
Treatment of joint problems depends on the cause. If you have a sports injury, treatment often begins with the RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation) method to relieve pain, reduce swelling, and speed healing. Other possible treatments include pain relievers, keeping the injured area from moving, rehabilitation, and sometimes surgery. For arthritis, injuries, or other diseases, you may need joint replacement surgery to remove the damaged joint and put in a new one.
NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases