2024 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code C69.2

Malignant neoplasm of retina

ICD-10-CM Code:
ICD-10 Code for:
Malignant neoplasm of retina
Is Billable?
Not Valid for Submission
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Code Classification

  • Neoplasms
    • Malignant neoplasms of eye, brain and other parts of central nervous system
      • Malignant neoplasm of eye and adnexa

C69.2 is a non-specific and non-billable diagnosis code code, consider using a code with a higher level of specificity for a diagnosis of malignant neoplasm of retina. The code is not specific and is NOT valid for the year 2024 for the submission of HIPAA-covered transactions. Category or Header define the heading of a category of codes that may be further subdivided by the use of 4th, 5th, 6th or 7th characters.

The following anatomical sites found in the Table of Neoplasms reference this diagnosis code given the correct histological behavior: Neoplasm, neoplastic retina .

Specific Coding Applicable to Malignant neoplasm of retina

Non-specific codes like C69.2 require more digits to indicate the appropriate level of specificity. Consider using any of the following ICD-10-CM codes with a higher level of specificity when coding for malignant neoplasm of retina:

  • Use C69.20 for Malignant neoplasm of unspecified retina - BILLABLE CODE

  • Use C69.21 for Malignant neoplasm of right retina - BILLABLE CODE

  • Use C69.22 for Malignant neoplasm of left retina - BILLABLE CODE

Clinical Information

  • Arrestin

    a 48-kd protein of the outer segment of the retinal rods and a component of the phototransduction cascade. arrestin quenches g-protein activation by binding to phosphorylated photolyzed rhodopsin. arrestin causes experimental autoimmune uveitis when injected into laboratory animals.
  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily A, Member 4

    an atp binding cassette sub-family a transporter that translocates 11-cis and all-trans isomers of n-retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine (retinoids) from the extracellular surface to the cytoplasmic membrane surface of retinal rod cells and retinal cone cells. mutations in the abca4 gene are associated with stargardt disease 1, a hereditary juvenile form of macular degeneration.
  • Blood-Retinal Barrier

    a specialized transport barrier, in the eye, formed by the retinal pigment epithelium, and the endothelium of the blood vessels of the retina. tight junctions joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
  • Cone-Rod Dystrophies

    genetically heterogeneous and sometimes syndromic (e.g., bardet biedl syndrome; and spinocerebellar ataxia type 7) retinopathies with initial retinal cone involvement. they are characterized by decreased visual acuity; color vision defects; progressive loss of peripheral vision and night blindness.
  • Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6

    a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for cyclic gmp. it is found predominantly in the outer segment photoreceptor cells of the retina. it is comprised of two catalytic subunits, referred to as alpha and beta, that form a dimer. in addition two regulatory subunits, referred to as gamma and delta, modulate the activity and localization of the enzyme.
  • Ependymoglial Cells

    the macroglial cells of ependyma. they are characterized by bipolar cell body shape and processes that contact basal lamina around blood vessels and/or the pia mater and the cerebral ventricles. muller cells of the retina are included based on similar microenvironmental contacts and morphology.
  • Leber Congenital Amaurosis

    a rare degenerative inherited eye disease that appears at birth or in the first few months of life that results in a loss of vision. not to be confused with leber hereditary optic neuropathy, the disease is thought to be caused by abnormal development of photoreceptor cells in the retina, or by the extremely premature degeneration of retinal cells.
  • Microaneurysm

    aneurysm of the microvasculature. charcot–bouchard aneurysms are aneurysms of the brain vasculature which is a common cause of cerebral hemorrhage. retinal microaneurysm is an early diagnostic sign of diabetic retinopathy.
  • Neuroectodermal Tumor, Melanotic

    a benign, rapidly growing, deeply pigmented tumor of the jaw and occasionally of other sites, consisting of an infiltrating mass of cells arranged in an alveolar pattern, and occurring almost exclusively in infants. its source of origin is in dispute, the various theories giving rise to its several names. (dorland, 27th ed)
  • Papilledema

    swelling of the optic disk, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. chronic papilledema may cause optic atrophy and visual loss. (miller et al., clinical neuro-ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)
  • Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate

    specialized phototransduction neurons in the vertebrates, such as the retinal rod cells and the retinal cone cells. non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the pineal gland and organs of the circadian system.
  • Porencephaly

    cortical malformations characterized by white matter-lined cleft or cyst associated with ischemia and hemorrhagic insults. symptoms include delayed growth and development, hypotonia; seizures; spastic hemiplegia and macrocephaly; microcephaly; or hydrocephalus. mutations in the genes encoding collagen type iv are associated with familial types.
  • Retina

    the ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. it is continuous with the optic nerve and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. its outer surface is in contact with the choroid and the inner surface with the vitreous body. the outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
  • Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysm

    an acquired dilation of the retinal artery often associated with systemic hypertension.
  • Retinal Artery

    central retinal artery and its branches. it arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.
  • Retinal Artery Occlusion

    sudden ischemia in the retina due to blocked blood flow through the central retinal artery or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.
  • Retinal Bipolar Cells

    interneurons of the vertebrate retina containing two processes. they receive inputs from the retinal photoreceptor cells and send outputs to the retinal ganglion cells. the bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the retinal horizontal cells and with the amacrine cells.
  • Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells

    photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the fovea centralis of the macula lutea. there are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
  • Retinal Degeneration

    a retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is macular degeneration. (newell, ophthalmology: principles and concepts, 7th ed, p304)
  • Retinal Dehydrogenase

    a metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of vitamin a, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of retinal to retinoic acid, using both nad+ and fad coenzymes. it also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of retinal.
  • Retinal Detachment

    separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. it may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (dorland, 27th ed; newell, ophthalmology: principles and concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).
  • Retinal Diseases

    diseases involving the retina.
  • Retinal Drusen

    colloid or hyaline bodies lying beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. they may occur either secondary to changes in the choroid that affect the pigment epithelium or as an autosomal dominant disorder of the retinal pigment epithelium.
  • Retinal Dysplasia

    congenital, often bilateral, retinal abnormality characterized by the arrangement of outer nuclear retinal cells in a palisading or radiating pattern surrounding a central ocular space. this disorder is sometimes hereditary.
  • Retinal Dystrophies

    a group of disorders involving predominantly the posterior portion of the ocular fundus, due to degeneration in the sensory layer of the retina; retinal pigment epithelium; bruch membrane; choroid; or a combination of these tissues.
  • Retinal Ganglion Cells

    neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. they are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the optic nerve to the brain. a small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the center for regulating circadian rhythm.
  • Retinal Hemorrhage

    bleeding from the vessels of the retina.
  • Retinal Horizontal Cells

    neurons in the inner nuclear layer of the retina that synapse with both the retinal photoreceptor cells and the retinal bipolar cells, as well as other horizontal cells. the horizontal cells modulate the sensory signal.
  • Retinal Necrosis Syndrome, Acute

    mild to fulminant necrotizing vaso-occlusive retinitis associated with a high incidence of retinal detachment and poor vision outcome.
  • Retinal Neoplasms

    tumors or cancer of the retina.
  • Retinal Neovascularization

    formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.
  • Retinal Neurons

    nerve cells of the retina in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the central nervous system. they include the outer layer of photoreceptor cells, the intermediate layer of retinal bipolar cells and amacrine cells, and the internal layer of retinal ganglion cells.
  • Retinal Perforations

    perforations through the whole thickness of the retina including the macula as the result of inflammation, trauma, degeneration, etc. the concept includes retinal breaks, tears, dialyses, and holes.
  • Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Inner Segment

    the inner portion of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell, situated between the photoreceptor connecting cilium and the synapse with the adjacent neurons (retinal bipolar cells; retinal horizontal cells). the inner segment contains the cell body, the nucleus, the mitochondria, and apparatus for protein synthesis.
  • Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Outer Segment

    the light sensitive outer portion of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell. the outer segment contains a stack of disk membranes laden with photoreceptive pigments (retinal pigments). the outer segment is connected to the inner segment by a photoreceptor connecting cilium.
  • Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    the single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the retina, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the retinal photoreceptor cells. these epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.
  • Retinal Pigments

    photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the photoreceptor cells. they are opsins conjugated with vitamin a-based chromophores. chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
  • Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells

    photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the fovea centralis. being much more sensitive to light than the retinal cone cells, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
  • Retinal Telangiectasis

    a group of rare, idiopathic, congenital retinal vascular anomalies affecting the retinal capillaries. it is characterized by dilation and tortuosity of retinal vessels and formation of multiple aneurysms, with different degrees of leakage and exudates emanating from the blood vessels.
  • Retinal Vasculitis

    inflammation of the retinal vasculature with various causes including infectious disease; lupus erythematosus, systemic; multiple sclerosis; behcet syndrome; and chorioretinitis.
  • Retinal Vein

    central retinal vein and its tributaries. it runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.
  • Retinal Vein Occlusion

    blockage of the retinal vein. those at high risk for this condition include patients with hypertension; diabetes mellitus; atherosclerosis; and other cardiovascular diseases.
  • Retinal Vessels

    the blood vessels which supply and drain the retina.
  • Retinaldehyde

    a diterpene derived from the carotenoid vitamin a which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. it is the prosthetic group of rhodopsin (i.e., covalently bonded to rod opsin as 11-cis-retinal). when stimulated by visible light, rhodopsin transforms this cis-isomer of retinal to the trans-isomer (11-trans-retinal). this transformation straightens-out the bend of the retinal molecule and causes a change in the shape of rhodopsin triggering the visual process. a series of energy-requiring enzyme-catalyzed reactions convert the 11-trans-retinal back to the cis-isomer.
  • Retinoblastoma

    a malignant tumor arising from the nuclear layer of the retina that is the most common primary tumor of the eye in children. the tumor tends to occur in early childhood or infancy and may be present at birth. the majority are sporadic, but the condition may be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. histologic features include dense cellularity, small round polygonal cells, and areas of calcification and necrosis. an abnormal pupil reflex (leukokoria); nystagmus, pathologic; strabismus; and visual loss represent common clinical characteristics of this condition. (from devita et al., cancer: principles and practice of oncology, 5th ed, p2104)
  • Vision Disparity

    the difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. this occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.
  • Visual Prosthesis

    artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the retina, optic nerve, or visual cortex, intended to restore or amplify vision.

Tabular List of Diseases and Injuries

The following annotation back-references are applicable to this diagnosis code. The Tabular List of Diseases and Injuries is a list of ICD-10-CM codes, organized "head to toe" into chapters and sections with coding notes and guidance for inclusions, exclusions, descriptions and more.

Type 1 Excludes

Type 1 Excludes
A type 1 excludes note is a pure excludes note. It means "NOT CODED HERE!" An Excludes1 note indicates that the code excluded should never be used at the same time as the code above the Excludes1 note. An Excludes1 is used when two conditions cannot occur together, such as a congenital form versus an acquired form of the same condition.
  • dark area on retina D49.81
  • neoplasm of unspecified behavior of retina and choroid D49.81
  • retinal freckle D49.81

Index to Diseases and Injuries References

The following annotation back-references for this diagnosis code are found in the injuries and diseases index. The Index to Diseases and Injuries is an alphabetical listing of medical terms, with each term mapped to one or more ICD-10-CM code(s).

Table of Neoplasms

This code is referenced in the table of neoplasms by anatomical site. For each site there are six possible code numbers according to whether the neoplasm in question is malignant, benign, in situ, of uncertain behavior, or of unspecified nature. The description of the neoplasm will often indicate which of the six columns is appropriate.

Where such descriptors are not present, the remainder of the Index should be consulted where guidance is given to the appropriate column for each morphological (histological) variety listed. However, the guidance in the Index can be overridden if one of the descriptors mentioned above is present.

Neoplasm, neoplastic Malignant
CaInSitu Benign Uncertain
»Neoplasm, neoplastic

Patient Education

Eye Cancer

Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up of muscles, skin and nerves. If the cancer starts inside the eyeball it's called intraocular cancer. The most common intraocular cancers in adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in the cells of the retina. Cancer can also spread to the eye from other parts of the body.

Treatment for eye cancer varies by the type and by how advanced it is. It may include surgery, radiation therapy, freezing or heat therapy, or laser therapy.

[Learn More in MedlinePlus]


Retinoblastoma is a rare type of eye cancer that usually develops in early childhood, typically before the age of 5. This form of cancer develops in the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color.

In children with retinoblastoma, the disease often affects only one eye. However, one out of three children with retinoblastoma develops cancer in both eyes. The most common first sign of retinoblastoma is a visible whiteness in the pupil called "cat's eye reflex" or leukocoria. This unusual whiteness is particularly noticeable in dim light or in photographs taken with a flash. Other signs and symptoms of retinoblastoma include crossed eyes or eyes that do not point in the same direction (strabismus), which can cause squinting; a change in the color of the colored part of the eye (iris); redness, soreness, or swelling of the eyelids; and blindness or poor vision in the affected eye or eyes.

Retinoblastoma is often curable when it is diagnosed early. However, if it is not treated promptly, this cancer can spread beyond the eye to other parts of the body. This advanced form of retinoblastoma can be life-threatening.

When retinoblastoma is associated with a genetic change (mutation) that occurs in all of the body's cells, it is known as hereditary (or germinal) retinoblastoma. People with this form of retinoblastoma typically develop cancer in both eyes and also have an increased risk of developing several other cancers outside the eye. Specifically, they are more likely to develop a cancer of the pineal gland in the brain (pineoblastoma), a type of bone cancer known as osteosarcoma, cancers of soft tissues (such as muscle) called soft tissue sarcomas, and an aggressive form of skin cancer called melanoma.

[Learn More in MedlinePlus]

Retinoblastoma Treatment (PDQ®)

Learn about retinoblastoma risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, factors affecting prognosis, staging, and treatment.
[Learn More in MedlinePlus]

Code History

  • FY 2024 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2023 through 9/30/2024
  • FY 2023 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2022 through 9/30/2023
  • FY 2022 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2021 through 9/30/2022
  • FY 2021 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2020 through 9/30/2021
  • FY 2020 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2019 through 9/30/2020
  • FY 2019 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2018 through 9/30/2019
  • FY 2018 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2017 through 9/30/2018
  • FY 2017 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2016 through 9/30/2017
  • FY 2016 - New Code, effective from 10/1/2015 through 9/30/2016. This was the first year ICD-10-CM was implemented into the HIPAA code set.