Information for Patients
The cervix is the lower part of the uterus, the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. The cervix has a small opening that expands during childbirth. It also allows menstrual blood to leave a woman's body.
Your health care provider may perform a Pap test during your health checkup to look for changes to the cells of the cervix, including cervical cancer. Other problems with the cervix include:
- Cervicitis - inflammation of the cervix. This is usually from an infection.
- Cervical incompetence - This can happen during pregnancy. The opening of the cervix widens long before the baby is due.
- Cervical polyps and cysts - abnormal growths on the cervix
- Cervical dysplasia (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Cervical polyps (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Cervicitis (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Cervix treatment - cryosurgery (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Cold knife cone biopsy (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Endocervical gram stain (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Insufficient cervix (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Nabothian cyst (Medical Encyclopedia)
Pelvic Floor Disorders
Also called: Cystocele, Enterocele, Pelvic prolapse, Rectocele
The pelvic floor is a group of muscles and other tissues that form a sling or hammock across the pelvis. In women, it holds the uterus, bladder, bowel, and other pelvic organs in place so that they can work properly. The pelvic floor can become weak or be injured. The main causes are pregnancy and childbirth. Other causes include being overweight, radiation treatment, surgery, and getting older.
Common symptoms include
- Feeling heaviness, fullness, pulling, or aching in the vagina. It gets worse by the end of the day or during a bowel movement.
- Seeing or feeling a "bulge" or "something coming out" of the vagina
- Having a hard time starting to urinate or emptying the bladder completely
- Having frequent urinary tract infections
- Leaking urine when you cough, laugh, or exercise
- Feeling an urgent or frequent need to urinate
- Feeling pain while urinating
- Leaking stool or having a hard time controlling gas
- Being constipated
- Having a hard time making it to the bathroom in time
Your health care provider diagnoses the problem with a physical exam, a pelvic exam, or special tests. Treatments include special pelvic muscle exercises called Kegel exercises. A mechanical support device called a pessary helps some women. Surgery and medicines are other treatments.
NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
- Anterior vaginal wall repair (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Pelvic floor muscle training exercises (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Rectal prolapse (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Urinary Retention - NIH (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases)
- Uterine prolapse (Medical Encyclopedia)