Malformation (congenital)

"Malformation (congenital)" References in the ICD-10-CM Index to Diseases and Injuries

References in the ICD-10-CM Index to Diseases and Injuries applicable to the clinical term "malformation (congenital)"

  • Malformation (congenital) - See Also: Anomaly;
    • adrenal gland - Q89.1 Congenital malformations of adrenal gland
    • affecting multiple systems with skeletal changes NEC - Q87.5 Other congenital malformation syndromes with other skeletal changes
    • alimentary tract - Q45.9 Congenital malformation of digestive system, unspecified
      • specified type NEC - Q45.8 Other specified congenital malformations of digestive system
      • upper - Q40.9 Congenital malformation of upper alimentary tract, unspecified
        • specified type NEC - Q40.8 Other specified congenital malformations of upper alimentary tract
    • aorta - Q25.40 Congenital malformation of aorta unspecified
      • absence - Q25.41 Absence and aplasia of aorta
      • aneurysm, congenital - Q25.43 Congenital aneurysm of aorta
      • aplasia - Q25.41 Absence and aplasia of aorta
      • atresia - Q25.29 Other atresia of aorta
        • aortic arch - Q25.21 Interruption of aortic arch
      • coarctation (preductal) (postductal) - Q25.1 Coarctation of aorta
      • dilatation, congenital - Q25.44 Congenital dilation of aorta
      • hypoplasia - Q25.42 Hypoplasia of aorta
      • patent ductus arteriosus - Q25.0 Patent ductus arteriosus
      • specified type NEC - Q25.49 Other congenital malformations of aorta
      • stenosis - Q25.1 Coarctation of aorta
        • supravalvular - Q25.3 Supravalvular aortic stenosis
    • aortic valve - Q23.9 Congenital malformation of aortic and mitral valves, unspecified
      • specified NEC - Q23.8 Other congenital malformations of aortic and mitral valves
    • arteriovenous, aneurysmatic (congenital) - Q27.30 Arteriovenous malformation, site unspecified
      • brain - Q28.2 Arteriovenous malformation of cerebral vessels
        • ruptured - I60.8 Other nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage
          • intracerebral - I61.8 Other nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage
          • intraparenchymal - I61.8 Other nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage
          • intraventricular - I61.5 Nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage, intraventricular
          • subarachnoid - I60.8 Other nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage
      • cerebral - See Also: Malformation, arteriovenous, brain; - Q28.2 Arteriovenous malformation of cerebral vessels
      • peripheral - Q27.30 Arteriovenous malformation, site unspecified
        • digestive system - See: Angiodysplasia;
          • congenital - Q27.33 Arteriovenous malformation of digestive system vessel
        • lower limb - Q27.32 Arteriovenous malformation of vessel of lower limb
        • other specified site - Q27.39 Arteriovenous malformation, other site
        • renal vessel - Q27.34 Arteriovenous malformation of renal vessel
        • upper limb - Q27.31 Arteriovenous malformation of vessel of upper limb
      • precerebral vessels (nonruptured) - Q28.0 Arteriovenous malformation of precerebral vessels
    • auricle
      • ear (congenital) - Q17.3 Other misshapen ear
        • acquired - H61.119 Acquired deformity of pinna, unspecified ear
          • left - H61.112 Acquired deformity of pinna, left ear
            • with right - H61.113 Acquired deformity of pinna, bilateral
          • right - H61.111 Acquired deformity of pinna, right ear
            • with left - H61.113 Acquired deformity of pinna, bilateral
    • bile duct - Q44.5 Other congenital malformations of bile ducts
    • bladder - Q64.79 Other congenital malformations of bladder and urethra
      • aplasia - Q64.5 Congenital absence of bladder and urethra
      • diverticulum - Q64.6 Congenital diverticulum of bladder
      • exstrophy - See: Exstrophy, bladder;
      • neck obstruction - Q64.31 Congenital bladder neck obstruction
    • bone - Q79.9 Congenital malformation of musculoskeletal system, unspecified
      • face - Q75.9 Congenital malformation of skull and face bones, unspecified
        • specified type NEC - Q75.8 Other specified congenital malformations of skull and face bones
      • skull - Q75.9 Congenital malformation of skull and face bones, unspecified
        • specified type NEC - Q75.8 Other specified congenital malformations of skull and face bones
    • brain (multiple) - Q04.9 Congenital malformation of brain, unspecified
      • arteriovenous - Q28.2 Arteriovenous malformation of cerebral vessels
      • specified type NEC - Q04.8 Other specified congenital malformations of brain
    • branchial cleft - Q18.2 Other branchial cleft malformations
    • breast - Q83.9 Congenital malformation of breast, unspecified
      • specified type NEC - Q83.8 Other congenital malformations of breast
    • broad ligament - Q50.6 Other congenital malformations of fallopian tube and broad ligament
    • bronchus - Q32.4 Other congenital malformations of bronchus
    • bursa - Q79.9 Congenital malformation of musculoskeletal system, unspecified
    • cardiac
      • chambers - Q20.9 Congenital malformation of cardiac chambers and connections, unspecified
        • specified type NEC - Q20.8 Other congenital malformations of cardiac chambers and connections
      • septum - Q21.9 Congenital malformation of cardiac septum, unspecified
        • specified type NEC - Q21.8 Other congenital malformations of cardiac septa
    • cerebral - Q04.9 Congenital malformation of brain, unspecified
      • vessels - Q28.3 Other malformations of cerebral vessels
    • cervix uteri - Q51.9 Congenital malformation of uterus and cervix, unspecified
      • specified type NEC - Q51.828 Other congenital malformations of cervix
    • Chiari
      • Type I - G93.5 Compression of brain
      • Type II - Q07.01 Arnold-Chiari syndrome with spina bifida
    • choroid (congenital) - Q14.3 Congenital malformation of choroid
      • plexus - Q07.8 Other specified congenital malformations of nervous system
    • circulatory system - Q28.9 Congenital malformation of circulatory system, unspecified
    • cochlea - Q16.5 Congenital malformation of inner ear
    • cornea - Q13.4 Other congenital corneal malformations
    • coronary vessels - Q24.5 Malformation of coronary vessels
    • corpus callosum (congenital) - Q04.0 Congenital malformations of corpus callosum
    • diaphragm - Q79.1 Other congenital malformations of diaphragm
    • digestive system NEC, specified type NEC - Q45.8 Other specified congenital malformations of digestive system
    • dura - Q07.9 Congenital malformation of nervous system, unspecified
      • brain - Q04.9 Congenital malformation of brain, unspecified
      • spinal - Q06.9 Congenital malformation of spinal cord, unspecified
    • ear - Q17.9 Congenital malformation of ear, unspecified
      • causing impairment of hearing - Q16.9 Congenital malformation of ear causing impairment of hearing, unspecified
      • external - Q17.9 Congenital malformation of ear, unspecified
        • accessory auricle - Q17.0 Accessory auricle
        • causing impairment of hearing - Q16.9 Congenital malformation of ear causing impairment of hearing, unspecified
          • absence of
            • auditory canal - Q16.1 Congenital absence, atresia and stricture of auditory canal (external)
            • auricle - Q16.0 Congenital absence of (ear) auricle
        • macrotia - Q17.1 Macrotia
        • microtia - Q17.2 Microtia
        • misplacement - Q17.4 Misplaced ear
        • misshapen NEC - Q17.3 Other misshapen ear
        • prominence - Q17.5 Prominent ear
        • specified type NEC - Q17.8 Other specified congenital malformations of ear
      • inner - Q16.5 Congenital malformation of inner ear
      • middle - Q16.4 Other congenital malformations of middle ear
        • absence of eustachian tube - Q16.2 Absence of eustachian tube
        • ossicles (fusion) - Q16.3 Congenital malformation of ear ossicles
      • ossicles - Q16.3 Congenital malformation of ear ossicles
      • specified type NEC - Q17.8 Other specified congenital malformations of ear
    • epididymis - Q55.4 Other congenital malformations of vas deferens, epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate
    • esophagus - Q39.9 Congenital malformation of esophagus, unspecified
      • specified type NEC - Q39.8 Other congenital malformations of esophagus
    • eye - Q15.9 Congenital malformation of eye, unspecified
      • lid - Q10.3 Other congenital malformations of eyelid
      • specified NEC - Q15.8 Other specified congenital malformations of eye
    • fallopian tube - Q50.6 Other congenital malformations of fallopian tube and broad ligament
    • genital organ - See: Anomaly, genitalia;
    • great
      • artery - Q25.9 Congenital malformation of great arteries, unspecified
        • aorta - See: Malformation, aorta;
        • pulmonary artery - See: Malformation, pulmonary, artery;
        • specified type NEC - Q25.8 Other congenital malformations of other great arteries
      • vein - Q26.9 Congenital malformation of great vein, unspecified
        • anomalous
          • portal venous connection - Q26.5 Anomalous portal venous connection
          • pulmonary venous connection - Q26.4 Anomalous pulmonary venous connection, unspecified
            • partial - Q26.3 Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection
            • total - Q26.2 Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection
        • persistent left superior vena cava - Q26.1 Persistent left superior vena cava
        • portal vein-hepatic artery fistula - Q26.6 Portal vein-hepatic artery fistula
        • specified type NEC - Q26.8 Other congenital malformations of great veins
        • vena cava stenosis, congenital - Q26.0 Congenital stenosis of vena cava
    • gum - Q38.6 Other congenital malformations of mouth
    • hair - Q84.2 Other congenital malformations of hair
    • heart - Q24.9 Congenital malformation of heart, unspecified
      • specified type NEC - Q24.8 Other specified congenital malformations of heart
    • integument - Q84.9 Congenital malformation of integument, unspecified
      • specified type NEC - Q84.8 Other specified congenital malformations of integument
    • internal ear - Q16.5 Congenital malformation of inner ear
    • intestine - Q43.9 Congenital malformation of intestine, unspecified
      • specified type NEC - Q43.8 Other specified congenital malformations of intestine
    • iris - Q13.2 Other congenital malformations of iris
    • joint - Q74.9 Unspecified congenital malformation of limb(s)
      • ankle - Q74.2 Other congenital malformations of lower limb(s), including pelvic girdle
      • lumbosacral - Q76.49 Other congenital malformations of spine, not associated with scoliosis
      • sacroiliac - Q74.2 Other congenital malformations of lower limb(s), including pelvic girdle
      • specified type NEC - Q74.8 Other specified congenital malformations of limb(s)
    • kidney - Q63.9 Congenital malformation of kidney, unspecified
      • accessory - Q63.0 Accessory kidney
      • giant - Q63.3 Hyperplastic and giant kidney
      • horseshoe - Q63.1 Lobulated, fused and horseshoe kidney
      • hydronephrosis - Q62.0 Congenital hydronephrosis
      • malposition - Q63.2 Ectopic kidney
      • specified type NEC - Q63.8 Other specified congenital malformations of kidney
    • lacrimal apparatus - Q10.6 Other congenital malformations of lacrimal apparatus
    • lingual - Q38.3 Other congenital malformations of tongue
    • lip - Q38.0 Congenital malformations of lips, not elsewhere classified
    • liver - Q44.7 Other congenital malformations of liver
    • lung - Q33.9 Congenital malformation of lung, unspecified
    • meninges or membrane (congenital) - Q07.9 Congenital malformation of nervous system, unspecified
      • cerebral - Q04.8 Other specified congenital malformations of brain
      • spinal (cord) - Q06.9 Congenital malformation of spinal cord, unspecified
    • middle ear - Q16.4 Other congenital malformations of middle ear
      • ossicles - Q16.3 Congenital malformation of ear ossicles
    • mitral valve - Q23.9 Congenital malformation of aortic and mitral valves, unspecified
      • specified NEC - Q23.8 Other congenital malformations of aortic and mitral valves
    • Mondini's (congenital) (malformation, cochlea) - Q16.5 Congenital malformation of inner ear
    • mouth (congenital) - Q38.6 Other congenital malformations of mouth
    • multiple types NEC - Q89.7 Multiple congenital malformations, not elsewhere classified
    • musculoskeletal system - Q79.9 Congenital malformation of musculoskeletal system, unspecified
    • myocardium - Q24.8 Other specified congenital malformations of heart
    • nail - Q84.6 Other congenital malformations of nails
    • nervous system (central) - Q07.9 Congenital malformation of nervous system, unspecified
    • nose - Q30.9 Congenital malformation of nose, unspecified
      • specified type NEC - Q30.8 Other congenital malformations of nose
    • optic disc - Q14.2 Congenital malformation of optic disc
    • orbit - Q10.7 Congenital malformation of orbit
    • ovary - Q50.39 Other congenital malformation of ovary
    • palate - Q38.5 Congenital malformations of palate, not elsewhere classified
    • parathyroid gland - Q89.2 Congenital malformations of other endocrine glands
    • pelvic organs or tissues NEC
      • in pregnancy or childbirth - O34.8 Maternal care for other abnormalities of pelvic organs
        • causing obstructed labor - O65.5 Obstructed labor due to abnormality of maternal pelvic organs
    • penis - Q55.69 Other congenital malformation of penis
      • aplasia - Q55.5 Congenital absence and aplasia of penis
      • curvature (lateral) - Q55.61 Curvature of penis (lateral)
      • hypoplasia - Q55.62 Hypoplasia of penis
    • pericardium - Q24.8 Other specified congenital malformations of heart
    • peripheral vascular system - Q27.9 Congenital malformation of peripheral vascular system, unspecified
      • specified type NEC - Q27.8 Other specified congenital malformations of peripheral vascular system
    • pharynx - Q38.8 Other congenital malformations of pharynx
    • precerebral vessels - Q28.1 Other malformations of precerebral vessels
    • prostate - Q55.4 Other congenital malformations of vas deferens, epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate
    • pulmonary
      • arteriovenous - Q25.72 Congenital pulmonary arteriovenous malformation
      • artery - Q25.9 Congenital malformation of great arteries, unspecified
        • atresia - Q25.5 Atresia of pulmonary artery
        • specified type NEC - Q25.79 Other congenital malformations of pulmonary artery
        • stenosis - Q25.6 Stenosis of pulmonary artery
      • valve - Q22.3 Other congenital malformations of pulmonary valve
    • renal artery - Q27.2 Other congenital malformations of renal artery
    • respiratory system - Q34.9 Congenital malformation of respiratory system, unspecified
    • retina - Q14.1 Congenital malformation of retina
    • scrotum - See: Malformation, testis and scrotum;
    • seminal vesicles - Q55.4 Other congenital malformations of vas deferens, epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate
    • sense organs NEC - Q07.9 Congenital malformation of nervous system, unspecified
    • skin - Q82.9 Congenital malformation of skin, unspecified
    • specified NEC - Q89.8 Other specified congenital malformations
    • spinal
      • cord - Q06.9 Congenital malformation of spinal cord, unspecified
      • nerve root - Q07.8 Other specified congenital malformations of nervous system
    • spine - Q76.49 Other congenital malformations of spine, not associated with scoliosis
      • kyphosis - See: Kyphosis, congenital;
      • lordosis - See: Lordosis, congenital;
    • spleen - Q89.09 Congenital malformations of spleen
    • stomach - Q40.3 Congenital malformation of stomach, unspecified
      • specified type NEC - Q40.2 Other specified congenital malformations of stomach
    • teeth, tooth - K00.9 Disorder of tooth development, unspecified
    • tendon - Q79.9 Congenital malformation of musculoskeletal system, unspecified
    • testis and scrotum - Q55.20 Unspecified congenital malformations of testis and scrotum
      • aplasia - Q55.0 Absence and aplasia of testis
      • hypoplasia - Q55.1 Hypoplasia of testis and scrotum
      • polyorchism - Q55.21 Polyorchism
      • retractile testis - Q55.22 Retractile testis
      • scrotal transposition - Q55.23 Scrotal transposition
      • specified NEC - Q55.29 Other congenital malformations of testis and scrotum
    • thorax, bony - Q76.9 Congenital malformation of bony thorax, unspecified
    • throat - Q38.8 Other congenital malformations of pharynx
    • thyroid gland - Q89.2 Congenital malformations of other endocrine glands
    • tongue (congenital) - Q38.3 Other congenital malformations of tongue
      • hypertrophy - Q38.2 Macroglossia
      • tie - Q38.1 Ankyloglossia
    • trachea - Q32.1 Other congenital malformations of trachea
    • tricuspid valve - Q22.9 Congenital malformation of tricuspid valve, unspecified
      • specified type NEC - Q22.8 Other congenital malformations of tricuspid valve
    • umbilical cord NEC (complicating delivery) - O69.89 Labor and delivery complicated by other cord complications
    • umbilicus - Q89.9 Congenital malformation, unspecified
    • ureter - Q62.8 Other congenital malformations of ureter
      • agenesis - Q62.4 Agenesis of ureter
      • duplication - Q62.5 Duplication of ureter
      • malposition - See: Malposition, congenital, ureter;
      • obstructive defect - See: Defect, obstructive, ureter;
      • vesico-uretero-renal reflux - Q62.7 Congenital vesico-uretero-renal reflux
    • urethra - Q64.79 Other congenital malformations of bladder and urethra
      • aplasia - Q64.5 Congenital absence of bladder and urethra
      • duplication - Q64.74 Double urethra
      • posterior valves - Q64.2 Congenital posterior urethral valves
      • prolapse - Q64.71 Congenital prolapse of urethra
      • stricture - Q64.32 Congenital stricture of urethra
    • urinary system - Q64.9 Congenital malformation of urinary system, unspecified
    • uterus - Q51.9 Congenital malformation of uterus and cervix, unspecified
      • specified type NEC - Q51.818 Other congenital malformations of uterus
    • vagina - Q52.4 Other congenital malformations of vagina
    • vas deferens - Q55.4 Other congenital malformations of vas deferens, epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate
      • atresia - Q55.3 Atresia of vas deferens
    • vascular system, peripheral - Q27.9 Congenital malformation of peripheral vascular system, unspecified
    • venous - See: Anomaly, vein(s);
    • vulva - Q52.70 Unspecified congenital malformations of vulva

Applicable Clinical Terms Definitions

Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.

Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.

Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.

Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.

Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.

Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.

Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principal cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.

Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.

Broad Ligament: A broad fold of peritoneum that extends from the side of the uterus to the wall of the pelvis.

Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.

Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.

Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)

Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.

Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.

Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).

Diverticulum: A pouch or sac developed from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.

Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.

Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.

Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.

Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.

Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.

Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.

Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.

Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.

Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.

Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.

Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).

Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.

Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.

Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.

Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.

Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.

Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.

Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.

Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

Lordosis: The anterior concavity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side. The term usually refers to abnormally increased curvature (hollow back, saddle back, swayback). It does not include lordosis as normal mating posture in certain animals ( = POSTURE + SEX BEHAVIOR, ANIMAL).

Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.

Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.

Congenital Microtia: Malformation of external portion of EAR AURICLE.

Ear, Middle: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.

Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.

Musculoskeletal System: The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.

Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.

Nails: The thin, horny plates that cover the dorsal surfaces of the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes of primates.

Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.

Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.

Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.

Palate: The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).

Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.

Ductus Arteriosus, Patent: A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.

Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.

Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.

Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).

Prolapse: The protrusion of an organ or part of an organ into a natural or artificial orifice.

Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.

Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.

Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.

Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.

Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.

Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.

Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.

Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.

Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.

Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.

Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.

Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.

Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.

Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.

Tricuspid Valve: The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.

Umbilicus: The pit in the center of the ABDOMINAL WALL marking the point where the UMBILICAL CORD entered in the FETUS.

Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.

Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.

Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.

Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.

Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Vas Deferens: The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.

Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the CAPILLARY BEDS.

Vulva: The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.