Disturbance (s)

  • Disturbance (s) - See Also: Disease;
    • absorption - K90.9 Intestinal malabsorption, unspecified
      • calcium - E58 Dietary calcium deficiency
      • carbohydrate - K90.49 Malabsorption due to intolerance, not elsewhere classified
      • fat - K90.49 Malabsorption due to intolerance, not elsewhere classified
        • pancreatic - K90.3 Pancreatic steatorrhea
      • protein - K90.49 Malabsorption due to intolerance, not elsewhere classified
      • starch - K90.49 Malabsorption due to intolerance, not elsewhere classified
      • vitamin - See: Deficiency, vitamin;
    • acid-base equilibrium - E87.8 Other disorders of electrolyte and fluid balance, not elsewhere classified
      • mixed - E87.4 Mixed disorder of acid-base balance
    • activity and attention (with hyperkinesis) - See: Disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity;
    • amino acid transport - E72.00 Disorders of amino-acid transport, unspecified
    • assimilation, food - K90.9 Intestinal malabsorption, unspecified
    • auditory nerve, except deafness
    • behavior - See: Disorder, conduct;
    • blood clotting (mechanism) - See Also: Defect, coagulation; - D68.9 Coagulation defect, unspecified
    • cerebral
      • nerve - See: Disorder, nerve, cranial;
      • status, newborn - P91.9 Disturbance of cerebral status of newborn, unspecified
        • specified NEC - P91.88 Other specified disturbances of cerebral status of newborn
    • circulatory - I99.9 Unspecified disorder of circulatory system
    • conduct - See Also: Disorder, conduct; - F91.9 Conduct disorder, unspecified
      • adjustment reaction - See: Disorder, adjustment;
      • compulsive - F63.9 Impulse disorder, unspecified
      • disruptive - F91.9 Conduct disorder, unspecified
      • hyperkinetic - See: Disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity;
      • socialized - F91.2 Conduct disorder, adolescent-onset type
      • specified NEC - F91.8 Other conduct disorders
      • unsocialized - F91.1 Conduct disorder, childhood-onset type
    • coordination - R27.8 Other lack of coordination
    • cranial nerve - See: Disorder, nerve, cranial;
    • deep sensibility - See: Disturbance, sensation;
    • digestive - K30 Functional dyspepsia
      • psychogenic - F45.8 Other somatoform disorders
    • electrolyte - See Also: Imbalance, electrolyte;
      • newborn, transitory - P74.49 Other transitory electrolyte disturbance of newborn
        • hyperammonemia - P74.6 Transitory hyperammonemia of newborn
        • hyperchloremia - P74.421 Hyperchloremia of newborn
        • hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis - P74.421 Hyperchloremia of newborn
        • hypochloremia - P74.422 Hypochloremia of newborn
        • potassium balance
          • hyperkalemia - P74.31 Hyperkalemia of newborn
          • hypokalemia - P74.32 Hypokalemia of newborn
        • sodium balance
          • hypernatremia - P74.21 Hypernatremia of newborn
          • hyponatremia - P74.22 Hyponatremia of newborn
        • specified type NEC - P74.49 Other transitory electrolyte disturbance of newborn
    • emotions specific to childhood and adolescence - F93.9 Childhood emotional disorder, unspecified
      • involving relationship problems - F93.8 Other childhood emotional disorders
      • mixed - F93.8 Other childhood emotional disorders
      • specified NEC - F93.8 Other childhood emotional disorders
      • with
        • anxiety and fearfulness NEC - F93.8 Other childhood emotional disorders
        • elective mutism - F94.0 Selective mutism
        • oppositional disorder - F91.3 Oppositional defiant disorder
        • sensitivity (withdrawal) - F40.10 Social phobia, unspecified
        • shyness - F40.10 Social phobia, unspecified
        • social withdrawal - F40.10 Social phobia, unspecified
    • endocrine (gland) - E34.9 Endocrine disorder, unspecified
      • neonatal, transitory - P72.9 Transitory neonatal endocrine disorder, unspecified
        • specified NEC - P72.8 Other specified transitory neonatal endocrine disorders
    • equilibrium - R42 Dizziness and giddiness
    • fructose metabolism - E74.10 Disorder of fructose metabolism, unspecified
    • gait - See: Gait;
      • hysterical - F44.4 Conversion disorder with motor symptom or deficit
      • psychogenic - F44.4 Conversion disorder with motor symptom or deficit
    • gastrointestinal (functional) - K30 Functional dyspepsia
      • psychogenic - F45.8 Other somatoform disorders
    • habit, child - F98.9 Unspecified behavioral and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence
    • hearing, except deafness and tinnitus - See: Abnormal, auditory perception;
    • heart, functional (conditions in I44-I50)
      • due to presence of (cardiac) prosthesis - I97.19 Other postprocedural cardiac functional disturbances
      • postoperative - I97.89 Other postprocedural complications and disorders of the circulatory system, not elsewhere classified
        • cardiac surgery - See Also: Infarct, myocardium, associated with revascularization procedure; - I97.19 Other postprocedural cardiac functional disturbances
    • hormones - E34.9 Endocrine disorder, unspecified
    • innervation uterus (parasympathetic) (sympathetic) - N85.8 Other specified noninflammatory disorders of uterus
    • keratinization NEC
      • gingiva - K05.10 Chronic gingivitis, plaque induced
        • nonplaque induced - K05.11 Chronic gingivitis, non-plaque induced
        • plaque induced - K05.10 Chronic gingivitis, plaque induced
      • lip - K13.0 Diseases of lips
      • oral (mucosa) (soft tissue) - K13.29 Other disturbances of oral epithelium, including tongue
      • tongue - K13.29 Other disturbances of oral epithelium, including tongue
    • learning (specific) - See: Disorder, learning;
    • memory - See: Amnesia;
      • mild, following organic brain damage - F06.8 Other specified mental disorders due to known physiological condition
    • mental - F99 Mental disorder, not otherwise specified
      • associated with diseases classified elsewhere - F54 Psychological and behavioral factors associated with disorders or diseases classified elsewhere
    • metabolism - E88.9 Metabolic disorder, unspecified
      • amino-acid - E72.9 Disorder of amino-acid metabolism, unspecified
        • aromatic - E70.9 Disorder of aromatic amino-acid metabolism, unspecified
        • branched-chain - E71.2 Disorder of branched-chain amino-acid metabolism, unspecified
        • straight-chain - E72.89 Other specified disorders of amino-acid metabolism
        • sulfur-bearing - E72.10 Disorders of sulfur-bearing amino-acid metabolism, unspecified
      • ammonia - E72.20 Disorder of urea cycle metabolism, unspecified
      • arginine - E72.21 Argininemia
      • arginosuccinic acid - E72.22 Arginosuccinic aciduria
      • carbohydrate - E74.9 Disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, unspecified
      • cholesterol - E78.9 Disorder of lipoprotein metabolism, unspecified
      • citrulline - E72.23 Citrullinemia
      • cystathionine - E72.19 Other disorders of sulfur-bearing amino-acid metabolism
      • general - E88.9 Metabolic disorder, unspecified
      • glutamine - E72.89 Other specified disorders of amino-acid metabolism
      • histidine - E70.40 Disorders of histidine metabolism, unspecified
      • homocystine - E72.19 Other disorders of sulfur-bearing amino-acid metabolism
      • hydroxylysine - E72.3 Disorders of lysine and hydroxylysine metabolism
      • in labor or delivery - O75.89 Other specified complications of labor and delivery
      • iron - E83.10 Disorder of iron metabolism, unspecified
      • lipoid - E78.9 Disorder of lipoprotein metabolism, unspecified
      • lysine - E72.3 Disorders of lysine and hydroxylysine metabolism
      • methionine - E72.19 Other disorders of sulfur-bearing amino-acid metabolism
      • neonatal, transitory - P74.9 Transitory metabolic disturbance of newborn, unspecified
        • calcium and magnesium - P71.9 Transitory neonatal disorder of calcium and magnesium metabolism, unspecified
          • specified type NEC - P71.8 Other transitory neonatal disorders of calcium and magnesium metabolism
        • carbohydrate metabolism - P70.9 Transitory disorder of carbohydrate metabolism of newborn, unspecified
          • specified type NEC - P70.8 Other transitory disorders of carbohydrate metabolism of newborn
        • specified NEC - P74.8 Other transitory metabolic disturbances of newborn
      • ornithine - E72.4 Disorders of ornithine metabolism
      • phosphate - E83.39 Other disorders of phosphorus metabolism
      • sodium NEC - E87.8 Other disorders of electrolyte and fluid balance, not elsewhere classified
      • threonine - E72.89 Other specified disorders of amino-acid metabolism
      • tryptophan - E70.5 Disorders of tryptophan metabolism
      • tyrosine - E70.20 Disorder of tyrosine metabolism, unspecified
      • urea cycle - E72.20 Disorder of urea cycle metabolism, unspecified
      • with
        • abortion - See: Abortion, by type with other specified complication;
        • ectopic pregnancy - O08.5 Metabolic disorders following an ectopic and molar pregnancy
        • molar pregnancy - O08.5 Metabolic disorders following an ectopic and molar pregnancy
    • motor - R29.2 Abnormal reflex
    • nervous, functional - R45.0 Nervousness
    • neuromuscular mechanism (eye), due to syphilis - A52.15 Late syphilitic neuropathy
    • nutritional - E63.9 Nutritional deficiency, unspecified
      • nail - L60.3 Nail dystrophy
    • ocular motion - H51.9 Unspecified disorder of binocular movement
      • psychogenic - F45.8 Other somatoform disorders
    • oculogyric - H51.8 Other specified disorders of binocular movement
      • psychogenic - F45.8 Other somatoform disorders
    • oculomotor - H51.9 Unspecified disorder of binocular movement
      • psychogenic - F45.8 Other somatoform disorders
    • olfactory nerve - R43.1 Parosmia
    • optic nerve NEC - See: Disorder, nerve, optic;
    • oral epithelium, including tongue NEC - K13.29 Other disturbances of oral epithelium, including tongue
    • perceptual due to
      • alcohol withdrawal - F10.232 Alcohol dependence with withdrawal with perceptual disturbance
      • amphetamine intoxication - F15.922 Other stimulant use, unspecified with intoxication with perceptual disturbance
        • in
          • abuse - F15.122 Other stimulant abuse with intoxication with perceptual disturbance
          • dependence - F15.222 Other stimulant dependence with intoxication with perceptual disturbance
      • anxiolytic withdrawal - F13.232 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with withdrawal with perceptual disturbance
      • cannabis intoxication (acute) - F12.922 Cannabis use, unspecified with intoxication with perceptual disturbance
        • in
          • abuse - F12.122 Cannabis abuse with intoxication with perceptual disturbance
          • dependence - F12.222 Cannabis dependence with intoxication with perceptual disturbance
      • cocaine intoxication (acute) - F14.922 Cocaine use, unspecified with intoxication with perceptual disturbance
        • in
          • abuse - F14.122 Cocaine abuse with intoxication with perceptual disturbance
          • dependence - F14.222 Cocaine dependence with intoxication with perceptual disturbance
      • hypnotic withdrawal - F13.232 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with withdrawal with perceptual disturbance
      • opioid intoxication (acute) - F11.922 Opioid use, unspecified with intoxication with perceptual disturbance
        • in
          • abuse - F11.122 Opioid abuse with intoxication with perceptual disturbance
          • dependence - F11.222 Opioid dependence with intoxication with perceptual disturbance
      • phencyclidine intoxication (acute) - F16.122 Hallucinogen abuse with intoxication with perceptual disturbance
      • sedative withdrawal - F13.232 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with withdrawal with perceptual disturbance
    • personality (pattern) (trait) - See Also: Disorder, personality; - F60.9 Personality disorder, unspecified
      • following organic brain damage - F07.9 Unspecified personality and behavioral disorder due to known physiological condition
    • polyglandular - E31.9 Polyglandular dysfunction, unspecified
      • specified NEC - E31.8 Other polyglandular dysfunction
    • potassium balance, newborn
      • hyperkalemia - P74.31 Hyperkalemia of newborn
      • hypokalemia - P74.32 Hypokalemia of newborn
    • psychogenic - F45.9 Somatoform disorder, unspecified
    • psychomotor - F44.4 Conversion disorder with motor symptom or deficit
    • psychophysical visual - H53.16 Psychophysical visual disturbances
    • pupillary - See: Anomaly, pupil, function;
    • reflex - R29.2 Abnormal reflex
    • rhythm, heart - I49.9 Cardiac arrhythmia, unspecified
    • salivary secretion - K11.7 Disturbances of salivary secretion
    • sensation (cold) (heat) (localization) (tactile discrimination) (texture) (vibratory) NEC - R20.9 Unspecified disturbances of skin sensation
      • hysterical - F44.6 Conversion disorder with sensory symptom or deficit
      • skin - R20.9 Unspecified disturbances of skin sensation
        • anesthesia - R20.0 Anesthesia of skin
        • hyperesthesia - R20.3 Hyperesthesia
        • hypoesthesia - R20.1 Hypoesthesia of skin
        • paresthesia - R20.2 Paresthesia of skin
        • specified type NEC - R20.8 Other disturbances of skin sensation
      • smell - R43.9 Unspecified disturbances of smell and taste
        • and taste (mixed) - R43.8 Other disturbances of smell and taste
        • anosmia - R43.0 Anosmia
        • parosmia - R43.1 Parosmia
        • specified NEC - R43.8 Other disturbances of smell and taste
      • taste - R43.9 Unspecified disturbances of smell and taste
        • and smell (mixed) - R43.8 Other disturbances of smell and taste
        • parageusia - R43.2 Parageusia
        • specified NEC - R43.8 Other disturbances of smell and taste
    • sensory - See: Disturbance, sensation;
    • situational (transient) - See Also: Disorder, adjustment;
      • acute - F43.0 Acute stress reaction
    • sleep - G47.9 Sleep disorder, unspecified
      • nonorganic origin - F51.9 Sleep disorder not due to a substance or known physiological condition, unspecified
    • smell - See: Disturbance, sensation, smell;
    • sociopathic - F60.2 Antisocial personality disorder
    • sodium balance, newborn
      • hypernatremia - P74.21 Hypernatremia of newborn
      • hyponatremia - P74.22 Hyponatremia of newborn
    • speech - R47.9 Unspecified speech disturbances
      • developmental - F80.9 Developmental disorder of speech and language, unspecified
      • specified NEC - R47.89 Other speech disturbances
    • stomach (functional) - K31.9 Disease of stomach and duodenum, unspecified
    • sympathetic (nerve) - G90.9 Disorder of the autonomic nervous system, unspecified
    • taste - See: Disturbance, sensation, taste;
    • temperature
      • regulation, newborn - P81.9 Disturbance of temperature regulation of newborn, unspecified
        • specified NEC - P81.8 Other specified disturbances of temperature regulation of newborn
      • sense - R20.8 Other disturbances of skin sensation
        • hysterical - F44.6 Conversion disorder with sensory symptom or deficit
    • tooth
      • eruption - K00.6 Disturbances in tooth eruption
      • formation - K00.4 Disturbances in tooth formation
      • structure, hereditary NEC - K00.5 Hereditary disturbances in tooth structure, not elsewhere classified
    • touch - See: Disturbance, sensation;
    • vascular - I99.9 Unspecified disorder of circulatory system
      • arteriosclerotic - See: Arteriosclerosis;
    • vasomotor - I73.9 Peripheral vascular disease, unspecified
    • vasospastic - I73.9 Peripheral vascular disease, unspecified
    • vision, visual - H53.9 Unspecified visual disturbance
      • following
        • cerebral infarction - I69.398 Other sequelae of cerebral infarction
        • cerebrovascular disease - I69.998 Other sequelae following unspecified cerebrovascular disease
          • specified NEC - I69.898 Other sequelae of other cerebrovascular disease
        • intracerebral hemorrhage - I69.198 Other sequelae of nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage
        • nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage NEC - I69.298 Other sequelae of other nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage
        • specified disease NEC - I69.898 Other sequelae of other cerebrovascular disease
        • subarachnoid hemorrhage - I69.098 Other sequelae following nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage
      • psychophysical - H53.16 Psychophysical visual disturbances
      • specified NEC - H53.8 Other visual disturbances
      • subjective - H53.10 Unspecified subjective visual disturbances
        • day blindness - H53.11 Day blindness
        • discomfort - H53.14 Visual discomfort
        • distortions of shape and size - H53.15 Visual distortions of shape and size
        • loss
          • sudden - H53.13 Sudden visual loss
          • transient - H53.12 Transient visual loss
        • specified type NEC - H53.19 Other subjective visual disturbances
    • voice - R49.9 Unspecified voice and resonance disorder
      • psychogenic - F44.4 Conversion disorder with motor symptom or deficit
      • specified NEC - R49.8 Other voice and resonance disorders

Footnotes

Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.

Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.

Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.

Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.

Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.

Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.

Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.

Carbohydrates: A class of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n. The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES.

Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.

Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).

Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.

Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.

Citrulline:

Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.

Cystathionine: Sulfur-containing amino acid formed as an intermediate in the conversion of METHIONINE to CYSTEINE.

Gait: Manner or style of walking.

Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.

Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.

Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.

Homocystine:

Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.

Hydroxylysine: A hydroxylated derivative of the amino acid LYSINE that is present in certain collagens.

Hyperammonemia: Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.

Hyperesthesia: Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.

Hyperkalemia: Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypernatremia: Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyponatremia: Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.

Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.

Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.

Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.

Metabolism: The chemical reactions in living organisms by which energy is provided for vital processes and activities and new material is assimilated.

Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.

Nails: The thin, horny plates that cover the dorsal surfaces of the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes of primates.

Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.

Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.

Paresthesia: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.

Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.

Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.

Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.

Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.

Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.

Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.

Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.

Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.

Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.

Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.

Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.

Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.

Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.

Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.

Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.

Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.

Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.

Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.

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