Acanthosis Nigricans - A circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown-pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds. It occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder.
Achondroplasia - An autosomal dominant disorder that is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension, GENU VARUM, and trident hand. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#100800, April 20, 2001)
Alveolar Bone Loss - Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
Angiomatosis - A condition with multiple tumor-like lesions caused either by congenital or developmental malformations of BLOOD VESSELS, or reactive vascular proliferations, such as in bacillary angiomatosis. Angiomatosis is considered non-neoplastic.
Angiomatosis, Bacillary - A reactive vascular proliferation that is characterized by the multiple tumor-like lesions in skin, bone, brain, and other organs. Bacillary angiomatosis is caused by infection with gram-negative Bartonella bacilli (such as BARTONELLA HENSELAE), and is often seen in AIDS patients and other IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOSTS.
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia - A congenital cardiomyopathy that is characterized by infiltration of adipose and fibrous tissue into the RIGHT VENTRICLE wall and loss of myocardial cells. Primary injuries usually are at the free wall of right ventricular and right atria resulting in ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias.
Blood Vessels - Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
Bloom Syndrome - An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by telangiectatic ERYTHEMA of the face, photosensitivity, DWARFISM and other abnormalities, and a predisposition toward developing cancer. The Bloom syndrome gene (BLM) encodes a RecQ-like DNA helicase.
Choanal Atresia - A congenital abnormality that is characterized by a blocked CHOANAE, the opening between the nose and the NASOPHARYNX. Blockage can be unilateral or bilateral; bony or membranous.
Cockayne Syndrome - A syndrome characterized by multiple system abnormalities including DWARFISM; PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS; PREMATURE AGING; and HEARING LOSS. It is caused by mutations of a number of autosomal recessive genes encoding proteins that involve transcriptional-coupled DNA REPAIR processes. Cockayne syndrome is classified by the severity and age of onset. Type I (classical; CSA) is early childhood onset in the second year of life; type II (congenital; CSB) is early onset at birth with severe symptoms; type III (xeroderma pigmentosum; XP) is late childhood onset with mild symptoms.
Cutis Laxa - A group of connective tissue diseases in which skin hangs in loose pendulous folds. It is believed to be associated with decreased elastic tissue formation as well as an abnormality in elastin formation. Cutis laxa is usually a genetic disease, but acquired cases have been reported. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Darier Disease - An autosomal dominantly inherited skin disorder characterized by warty malodorous papules that coalesce into plaques. It is caused by mutations in the ATP2A2 gene encoding SERCA2 protein, one of the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. The condition is similar, clinically and histologically, to BENIGN FAMILIAL PEMPHIGUS, another autosomal dominant skin disorder. Both diseases have defective calcium pumps (CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES) and unstable desmosomal adhesion junctions (DESMOSOMES) between KERATINOCYTES.
Dyskeratosis Congenita - A predominantly X-linked recessive syndrome characterized by a triad of reticular skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and leukoplakia of mucous membranes. Oral and dental abnormalities may also be present. Complications are a predisposition to malignancy and bone marrow involvement with pancytopenia. (from Int J Paediatr Dent 2000 Dec;10(4):328-34) The X-linked form is also known as Zinsser-Cole-Engman syndrome and involves the gene which encodes a highly conserved protein called dyskerin.
Ectodermal Dysplasia - A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and hidrotic dysplasias, FOCAL DERMAL HYPOPLASIA, and aplasia cutis congenita.
Ectodermal Dysplasia 1, Anhidrotic - An X-linked form of ectodermal dysplasia which results from mutations of the gene encoding ECTODYSPLASIN.
Ectodermal Dysplasia 3, Anhidrotic - An autosomal dominant form of ectodermal dysplasia which is due to mutations in the gene for the EDAR RECEPTOR.
Ectodermal Dysplasia, Hypohidrotic, Autosomal Recessive - An autosomal recessive form of ectodermal dysplasia which is due to mutations in the gene for the EDAR RECEPTOR or EDAR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN.
Edar Receptor - A ectodysplasin receptor subtype that is specific for ECTODYSPLASIN A1. It signals via the specific signaling adaptor EDAR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Loss of function of the edar receptor is associated with AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE ANHIDROTIC ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA and ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA 3, ANHIDROTIC.
Erythrokeratodermia Variabilis - An autosomal dominant skin disease characterized by transient and variable noninflammatory ERYTHEMA and hyperkeratosis. It has been associated with mutations in the genes that code for CONNEXINS. Erythrokeratodermia variabilis inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion has also been reported. Affected individuals often develop PALMOPLANTAR KERATODERMA.
Focal Dermal Hypoplasia - A genetic skin disease characterized by hypoplasia of the dermis, herniations of fat, and hand anomalies. It is found exclusively in females and transmitted as an X-linked dominant trait.
Focal Facial Dermal Dysplasias - A heterogenous group of genetic disorders characterized by scar-like atrophic lesions on the temple region of the head including preauricular area. Location of skin defects is likely related to defects in fusion of embryonic facial prominences during development of the face. Focal facial dermal dysplasia (FFDD) is generally divided into four subtypes according to the location of the lesions and inheritance pattern: FFDD1 (Brauer syndrome); FFDD2 (Brauer-Setleis syndrome); FFDD3 (Setleis syndrome); and FFDD4. Mutations in TWIST2 Protein and/or CYP26C1 (see CYP26 FAMILY) are associated with FFDD3, and 4.
Hypohidrosis - Abnormally diminished or absent perspiration. Both generalized and segmented (reduced or absent sweating in circumscribed locations) forms of the disease are usually associated with other underlying conditions.
Incontinentia Pigmenti - A genodermatosis occurring mostly in females and characterized by skin changes in three phases - vesiculobullous, verrucous papillomatous, and macular melanodermic. Hyperpigmentation is bizarre and irregular. Sixty percent of patients have abnormalities of eyes, teeth, central nervous system, and skin appendages.
Keratinocytes - Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
Livedo Reticularis - A condition characterized by a reticular or fishnet pattern on the skin of lower extremities and other parts of the body. This red and blue pattern is due to deoxygenated blood in unstable dermal blood vessels. The condition is intensified by cold exposure and relieved by rewarming.
Livedoid Vasculopathy - A rare cutaneous thrombotic disease due to occlusion of dermal vessels. It is characterized by purpuric maculae and ulcerations especially during summer which form scars called atrophie blanche. It is more associated with other syndromes (e.g., PROTEIN C DEFICIENCY; HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA). Livedo reticularis with systemic involvement and stroke is SNEDDON SYNDROME.
Lumbosacral Region - Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.
Mongolian Spot - A bluish-gray to gray-brown benign, melanocytic nevus found usually in the LUMBOSACRAL REGION of dark-skinned people, especially those of East Asian ancestry. It is usually congenital or appears shortly after birth, and disappears in childhood.
Pigmentation Disorders - Diseases affecting PIGMENTATION, including SKIN PIGMENTATION.
Porokeratosis - A heritable disorder of faulty keratinization characterized by the proliferation of abnormal clones of KERATINOCYTES and lesions showing varying atrophic patches surrounded by an elevated, keratotic border. These keratotic lesions can progress to overt cutaneous neoplasm. Several clinical variants are recognized, including porokeratosis of Mibelli, linear porokeratosis, disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis, palmoplantar porokeratosis, and punctate porokeratosis.
Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum - An inherited disorder of connective tissue with extensive degeneration and calcification of ELASTIC TISSUE primarily in the skin, eye, and vasculature. At least two forms exist, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. This disorder is caused by mutations of one of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. Patients are predisposed to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION and GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.
Sneddon Syndrome - A systemic non-inflammatory arteriopathy primarily of middle-aged females characterized by the association of LIVEDO RETICULARIS, multiple thrombotic CEREBRAL INFARCTION; CORONARY DISEASE, and HYPERTENSION. Elevation of antiphospholipid antibody titers (see also ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME), cardiac valvulopathy, ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and chronic ischemia of the extremities may also occur. Pathologic examination of affected arteries reveals non-inflammatory adventitial fibrosis, thrombosis, and changes in the media. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p861; Arch Neurol 1997 Jan;54(1):53-60)
Sturge-Weber Syndrome - A non-inherited congenital condition with vascular and neurological abnormalities. It is characterized by facial vascular nevi (PORT-WINE STAIN), and capillary angiomatosis of intracranial membranes (MENINGES; CHOROID). Neurological features include EPILEPSY; cognitive deficits; GLAUCOMA; and visual defects.
Talipes Cavus - A foot deformity in which the arch of the foot is high and often the heel adducted.
von Hippel-Lindau Disease - An autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in a tumor suppressor gene. This syndrome is characterized by abnormal growth of small blood vessels leading to a host of neoplasms. They include HEMANGIOBLASTOMA in the RETINA; CEREBELLUM; and SPINAL CORD; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; pancreatic tumors; and renal cell carcinoma (see CARCINOMA, RENAL CELL). Common clinical signs include HYPERTENSION and neurological dysfunctions.
Xeroderma Pigmentosum - A rare, pigmentary, and atrophic autosomal recessive disease. It is manifested as an extreme photosensitivity to ULTRAVIOLET RAYS as the result of a deficiency in the enzyme that permits excisional repair of ultraviolet-damaged DNA.
Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Protein - A ZINC FINGER MOTIF protein that recognizes and interacts with damaged DNA. It is a DNA-binding protein that plays an essential role in NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. Mutations in this protein are associated with the most severe form of XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM.
Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group D Protein - A DNA helicase that is a component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIIH. It plays an essential role in NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR, and mutations in this protein are associated with XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM.
Type 1 Excludes
A type 1 excludes note is a pure excludes note. It means "NOT CODED HERE!" An Excludes1 note indicates that the code excluded should never be used at the same time as the code above the Excludes1 note. An Excludes1 is used when two conditions cannot occur together, such as a congenital form versus an acquired form of the same condition.