ICD-10-CM Code O31

Complications specific to multiple gestation

Version 2020 Non-Billable Code

Not Valid for Submission

O31 is a "header" nonspecific and non-billable code code, consider using a code with a higher level of specificity for a diagnosis of complications specific to multiple gestation. The code is NOT valid for the year 2020 for the submission of HIPAA-covered transactions.

ICD-10:O31
Short Description:Complications specific to multiple gestation
Long Description:Complications specific to multiple gestation

Consider the following ICD-10 codes with a higher level of specificity:

  • O31.0 - Papyraceous fetus
  • O31.00 - Papyraceous fetus, unspecified trimester
  • O31.00X0 - Papyraceous fetus, unspecified trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.00X1 - Papyraceous fetus, unspecified trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.00X2 - Papyraceous fetus, unspecified trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.00X3 - Papyraceous fetus, unspecified trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.00X4 - Papyraceous fetus, unspecified trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.00X5 - Papyraceous fetus, unspecified trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.00X9 - Papyraceous fetus, unspecified trimester, other fetus
  • O31.01 - Papyraceous fetus, first trimester
  • O31.01X0 - Papyraceous fetus, first trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.01X1 - Papyraceous fetus, first trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.01X2 - Papyraceous fetus, first trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.01X3 - Papyraceous fetus, first trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.01X4 - Papyraceous fetus, first trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.01X5 - Papyraceous fetus, first trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.01X9 - Papyraceous fetus, first trimester, other fetus
  • O31.02 - Papyraceous fetus, second trimester
  • O31.02X0 - Papyraceous fetus, second trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.02X1 - Papyraceous fetus, second trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.02X2 - Papyraceous fetus, second trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.02X3 - Papyraceous fetus, second trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.02X4 - Papyraceous fetus, second trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.02X5 - Papyraceous fetus, second trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.02X9 - Papyraceous fetus, second trimester, other fetus
  • O31.03 - Papyraceous fetus, third trimester
  • O31.03X0 - Papyraceous fetus, third trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.03X1 - Papyraceous fetus, third trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.03X2 - Papyraceous fetus, third trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.03X3 - Papyraceous fetus, third trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.03X4 - Papyraceous fetus, third trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.03X5 - Papyraceous fetus, third trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.03X9 - Papyraceous fetus, third trimester, other fetus
  • O31.1 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more
  • O31.10 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester
  • O31.10X0 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.10X1 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.10X2 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.10X3 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.10X4 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.10X5 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.10X9 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, other fetus
  • O31.11 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, first trimester
  • O31.11X0 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, first trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.11X1 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, first trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.11X2 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, first trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.11X3 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, first trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.11X4 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, first trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.11X5 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, first trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.11X9 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, first trimester, other fetus
  • O31.12 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, second trimester
  • O31.12X0 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, second trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.12X1 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, second trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.12X2 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, second trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.12X3 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, second trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.12X4 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, second trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.12X5 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, second trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.12X9 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, second trimester, other fetus
  • O31.13 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, third trimester
  • O31.13X0 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, third trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.13X1 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, third trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.13X2 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, third trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.13X3 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, third trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.13X4 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, third trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.13X5 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, third trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.13X9 - Continuing pregnancy after spontaneous abortion of one fetus or more, third trimester, other fetus
  • O31.2 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more
  • O31.20 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester
  • O31.20X0 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.20X1 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.20X2 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.20X3 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.20X4 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.20X5 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.20X9 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, other fetus
  • O31.21 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, first trimester
  • O31.21X0 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, first trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.21X1 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, first trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.21X2 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, first trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.21X3 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, first trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.21X4 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, first trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.21X5 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, first trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.21X9 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, first trimester, other fetus
  • O31.22 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, second trimester
  • O31.22X0 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, second trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.22X1 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, second trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.22X2 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, second trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.22X3 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, second trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.22X4 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, second trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.22X5 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, second trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.22X9 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, second trimester, other fetus
  • O31.23 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, third trimester
  • O31.23X0 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, third trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.23X1 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, third trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.23X2 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, third trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.23X3 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, third trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.23X4 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, third trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.23X5 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, third trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.23X9 - Continuing pregnancy after intrauterine death of one fetus or more, third trimester, other fetus
  • O31.3 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more
  • O31.30 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester
  • O31.30X0 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.30X1 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.30X2 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.30X3 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.30X4 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.30X5 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.30X9 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, unspecified trimester, other fetus
  • O31.31 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, first trimester
  • O31.31X0 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, first trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.31X1 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, first trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.31X2 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, first trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.31X3 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, first trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.31X4 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, first trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.31X5 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, first trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.31X9 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, first trimester, other fetus
  • O31.32 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, second trimester
  • O31.32X0 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, second trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.32X1 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, second trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.32X2 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, second trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.32X3 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, second trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.32X4 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, second trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.32X5 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, second trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.32X9 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, second trimester, other fetus
  • O31.33 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, third trimester
  • O31.33X0 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, third trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.33X1 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, third trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.33X2 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, third trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.33X3 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, third trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.33X4 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, third trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.33X5 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, third trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.33X9 - Continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, third trimester, other fetus
  • O31.8 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation
  • O31.8X - Other complications specific to multiple gestation
  • O31.8X1 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, first trimester
  • O31.8X10 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, first trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.8X11 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, first trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.8X12 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, first trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.8X13 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, first trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.8X14 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, first trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.8X15 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, first trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.8X19 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, first trimester, other fetus
  • O31.8X2 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, second trimester
  • O31.8X20 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, second trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.8X21 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, second trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.8X22 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, second trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.8X23 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, second trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.8X24 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, second trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.8X25 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, second trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.8X29 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, second trimester, other fetus
  • O31.8X3 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, third trimester
  • O31.8X30 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, third trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.8X31 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, third trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.8X32 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, third trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.8X33 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, third trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.8X34 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, third trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.8X35 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, third trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.8X39 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, third trimester, other fetus
  • O31.8X9 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, unspecified trimester
  • O31.8X90 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, unspecified trimester, not applicable or unspecified
  • O31.8X91 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, unspecified trimester, fetus 1
  • O31.8X92 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, unspecified trimester, fetus 2
  • O31.8X93 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, unspecified trimester, fetus 3
  • O31.8X94 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, unspecified trimester, fetus 4
  • O31.8X95 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, unspecified trimester, fetus 5
  • O31.8X99 - Other complications specific to multiple gestation, unspecified trimester, other fetus

Tabular List of Diseases and Injuries

The Tabular List of Diseases and Injuries is a list of ICD-10 codes, organized "head to toe" into chapters and sections with guidance for inclusions, exclusions, descriptions and more. The following references are applicable to the code O31:

Type 2 Excludes

Type 2 Excludes
A type 2 excludes note represents "Not included here". An excludes2 note indicates that the condition excluded is not part of the condition represented by the code, but a patient may have both conditions at the same time. When an Excludes2 note appears under a code, it is acceptable to use both the code and the excluded code together, when appropriate.
  • delayed delivery of second twin, triplet, etc. O63.2
  • malpresentation of one fetus or more O32.9
  • placental transfusion syndromes O43.0

7th Character Note

7th Character Note
Certain ICD-10-CM categories have applicable 7th characters. The applicable 7th character is required for all codes within the category, or as the notes in the Tabular List instruct. The 7th character must always be the 7th character in the data field. If a code that requires a 7th character is not 6 characters, a placeholder X must be used to fill in the empty characters.
  • One of the following 7th characters is to be assigned to each code under category O31. 7th character 0 is for single gestations and multiple gestations where the fetus is unspecified. 7th characters 1 through 9 are for cases of multiple gestations to identify the fetus for which the code applies. The appropriate code from category O30

7th Character

7th Character
Indicates that a seventh character is to be assigned to codes in a subcategory.
  • 0 - not applicable or unspecified
  • 1 - fetus 1
  • 2 - fetus 2
  • 3 - fetus 3
  • 4 - fetus 4
  • 5 - fetus 5
  • 9 - other fetus

Code Classification

  • Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (O00–O99)
    • Maternal care related to the fetus and amniotic cavity and possible delivery problems (O30-O48)
      • Complications specific to multiple gestation (O31)

Code History

  • FY 2016 - New Code, effective from 10/1/2015 through 9/30/2016
    (First year ICD-10-CM implemented into the HIPAA code set)
  • FY 2017 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2016 through 9/30/2017
  • FY 2018 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2017 through 9/30/2018
  • FY 2019 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2018 through 9/30/2019
  • FY 2020 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2019 through 9/30/2020

Information for Patients


Twins, Triplets, Multiple Births

If you are pregnant with more than one baby, you are far from alone. Multiple births are up in the United States. More women are having babies after age 30 and more are taking fertility drugs. Both boost the chance of carrying more than one baby. A family history of twins also makes multiples more likely.

Years ago, most twins came as a surprise. Now, most women know about a multiple pregnancy early. Women with multiple pregnancies should see their health care providers more often than women who are expecting one baby. Multiple pregnancy babies have a much higher risk of being born prematurely and having a low birth weight. There is also more of a risk of disabilities. Some women have to go on bed rest to delay labor. Finally, they may deliver by C-section, especially if there are three babies or more.

Parenting multiples can be a challenge. Volunteer help and support groups for parents of multiples can help.

Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health


[Learn More]