Failure, failed

Alphabetical Index

Use the alphabetical index for the main term failure, failed to review the available sub terms and properly select the ICD-10 code with the highest degree of specificity. Instructional notations will guide the coder with information such as "see", "see also", "with", "without", "due to", and "code by site".

  • Failure, failed
    • abortion - See: Abortion, attempted;
    • aortic (valve) - I35.8 Other nonrheumatic aortic valve disorders
      • rheumatic - I06.8 Other rheumatic aortic valve diseases
    • attempted abortion - See: Abortion, attempted;
    • biventricular - I50.82 Biventricular heart failure
      • due to left heart failure - I50.814 Right heart failure due to left heart failure
    • bone marrow - See: Anemia, aplastic;
    • cardiac - See: Failure, heart;
    • cardiorenal (chronic) - See Also: Failure, renal, and Failure, heart; - I50.9 Heart failure, unspecified
      • hypertensive - I13.2 Hypertensive heart and chronic kidney disease with heart failure and with stage 5 chronic kidney disease, or end stage renal disease
    • cardiorespiratory - See Also: Failure, heart; - R09.2 Respiratory arrest
    • cardiovascular (chronic) - See: Failure, heart;
    • cerebrovascular - I67.9 Cerebrovascular disease, unspecified
    • cervical dilatation in labor - O62.0 Primary inadequate contractions
    • circulation, circulatory (peripheral) - R57.9 Shock, unspecified
      • newborn - P29.89 Other cardiovascular disorders originating in the perinatal period
    • compensation - See: Disease, heart;
    • compliance with medical treatment or regimen - See: Noncompliance;
    • congestive - See: Failure, heart, congestive;
    • dental implant (endosseous) - M27.69 Other endosseous dental implant failure
      • due to
        • failure of dental prosthesis - M27.63 Post-osseointegration mechanical failure of dental implant
        • lack of attached gingiva - M27.62 Post-osseointegration biological failure of dental implant
        • occlusal trauma (poor prosthetic design) - M27.62 Post-osseointegration biological failure of dental implant
        • parafunctional habits - M27.62 Post-osseointegration biological failure of dental implant
        • periodontal infection (peri-implantitis) - M27.62 Post-osseointegration biological failure of dental implant
        • poor oral hygiene - M27.62 Post-osseointegration biological failure of dental implant
      • osseointegration - M27.61 Osseointegration failure of dental implant
        • due to
          • complications of systemic disease - M27.61 Osseointegration failure of dental implant
          • poor bone quality - M27.61 Osseointegration failure of dental implant
        • iatrogenic - M27.61 Osseointegration failure of dental implant
      • post-osseointegration
        • biological - M27.62 Post-osseointegration biological failure of dental implant
        • due to complications of systemic disease - M27.62 Post-osseointegration biological failure of dental implant
        • iatrogenic - M27.62 Post-osseointegration biological failure of dental implant
        • mechanical - M27.63 Post-osseointegration mechanical failure of dental implant
      • pre-integration - M27.61 Osseointegration failure of dental implant
      • pre-osseointegration - M27.61 Osseointegration failure of dental implant
      • specified NEC - M27.69 Other endosseous dental implant failure
    • descent of head (at term) of pregnancy (mother) - O32.4 Maternal care for high head at term
    • endosseous dental implant - See: Failure, dental implant;
    • engagement of head (term of pregnancy) (mother) - O32.4 Maternal care for high head at term
    • erection (penile) - See Also: Dysfunction, sexual, male, erectile; - N52.9 Male erectile dysfunction, unspecified
      • nonorganic - F52.21 Male erectile disorder
    • examination (s), anxiety concerning - Z55.2 Failed school examinations
    • expansion terminal respiratory units (newborn) (primary) - P28.0 Primary atelectasis of newborn
    • forceps NOS (with subsequent cesarean delivery) - O66.5 Attempted application of vacuum extractor and forceps
    • gain weight (child over 28 days old) - R62.51 Failure to thrive (child)
      • adult - R62.7 Adult failure to thrive
      • newborn - P92.6 Failure to thrive in newborn
    • genital response (male) - F52.21 Male erectile disorder
      • female - F52.22 Female sexual arousal disorder
    • heart (acute) (senile) (sudden) - I50.9 Heart failure, unspecified
      • arteriosclerotic - I70.90 Unspecified atherosclerosis
      • biventricular - I50.82 Biventricular heart failure
        • due to left heart failure - I50.814 Right heart failure due to left heart failure
      • combined left-right sided - I50.82 Biventricular heart failure
        • due to left heart failure - I50.814 Right heart failure due to left heart failure
      • compensated - See Also: Failure, heart, by type as diastolic or systolic, chronic; - I50.9 Heart failure, unspecified
      • complicating
        • anesthesia (general) (local) or other sedation
          • in labor and delivery - O74.2 Cardiac complications of anesthesia during labor and delivery
          • in pregnancy - O29.12 Cardiac failure due to anesthesia during pregnancy
          • postpartum, puerperal - O89.1 Cardiac complications of anesthesia during the puerperium
        • delivery (cesarean) (instrumental) - O75.4 Other complications of obstetric surgery and procedures
      • congestive - I50.9 Heart failure, unspecified
        • newborn - P29.0 Neonatal cardiac failure
        • rheumatic (chronic) (inactive) (with chorea) - I09.81 Rheumatic heart failure
          • active or acute - I01.8 Other acute rheumatic heart disease
            • with chorea - I02.0 Rheumatic chorea with heart involvement
        • with rheumatic fever (conditions in I00)
          • active - I01.8 Other acute rheumatic heart disease
          • inactive or quiescent (with chorea) - I09.81 Rheumatic heart failure
      • decompensated - See Also: Failure, heart, by type as diastolic or systolic, acute and chronic; - I50.9 Heart failure, unspecified
      • degenerative - See: Degeneration, myocardial;
      • diastolic (congestive) (left ventricular) - I50.30 Unspecified diastolic (congestive) heart failure
        • acute (congestive) - I50.31 Acute diastolic (congestive) heart failure
          • and (on) chronic (congestive) - I50.33 Acute on chronic diastolic (congestive) heart failure
        • chronic (congestive) - I50.32 Chronic diastolic (congestive) heart failure
          • and (on) acute (congestive) - I50.33 Acute on chronic diastolic (congestive) heart failure
        • combined with systolic (congestive) - I50.40 Unspecified combined systolic (congestive) and diastolic (congestive) heart failure
          • acute (congestive) - I50.41 Acute combined systolic (congestive) and diastolic (congestive) heart failure
            • and (on) chronic (congestive) - I50.43 Acute on chronic combined systolic (congestive) and diastolic (congestive) heart failure
          • chronic (congestive) - I50.42 Chronic combined systolic (congestive) and diastolic (congestive) heart failure
            • and (on) acute (congestive) - I50.43 Acute on chronic combined systolic (congestive) and diastolic (congestive) heart failure
      • due to presence of cardiac prosthesis - I97.13 Postprocedural heart failure
      • end stage - See Also: Failure, heart, by type as diastolic or systolic, chronic; - I50.84 End stage heart failure
      • following cardiac surgery - I97.13 Postprocedural heart failure
      • high output NOS - I50.83 High output heart failure
      • hypertensive - See: Hypertension, heart;
      • left (ventricular) - See Also: Failure, ventricular, left;
        • combined diastolic and systolic - See: Failure, heart, diastolic, combined with systolic;
        • diastolic - See: Failure, heart, diastolic;
        • systolic - See: Failure, heart, systolic;
      • low output (syndrome) NOS - I50.9 Heart failure, unspecified
      • newborn - P29.0 Neonatal cardiac failure
      • organic - See: Disease, heart;
      • peripartum - O90.3 Peripartum cardiomyopathy
      • postprocedural - I97.13 Postprocedural heart failure
      • rheumatic (chronic) (inactive) - I09.9 Rheumatic heart disease, unspecified
      • right (isolated) (ventricular) - I50.810 Right heart failure, unspecified
        • acute - I50.811 Acute right heart failure
          • and (on) chronic - I50.813 Acute on chronic right heart failure
        • chronic - I50.812 Chronic right heart failure
          • and acute - I50.813 Acute on chronic right heart failure
        • secondary to left heart failure - I50.814 Right heart failure due to left heart failure
      • specified NEC - I50.89 Other heart failure
      • with
        • acute pulmonary edema - See: Failure, ventricular, left;
        • decompensation - See Also: Failure, heart, by type as diastolic or systolic, acute and chronic; - I50.9 Heart failure, unspecified
        • dilatation - See: Disease, heart;
        • hypertension - See: Hypertension, heart;
        • normal ejection fraction - See: Failure, heart, diastolic;
        • preserved ejection fraction - See: Failure, heart, diastolic;
        • reduced ejection fraction - See: Failure, heart, systolic;
    • hepatic - K72.90 Hepatic failure, unspecified without coma
      • acute or subacute - K72.00 Acute and subacute hepatic failure without coma
        • due to drugs - K71.10 Toxic liver disease with hepatic necrosis, without coma
          • with coma - K71.11 Toxic liver disease with hepatic necrosis, with coma
        • with coma - K72.01 Acute and subacute hepatic failure with coma
      • alcoholic (acute) (chronic) (subacute) - K70.40 Alcoholic hepatic failure without coma
        • with coma - K70.41 Alcoholic hepatic failure with coma
      • chronic - K72.10 Chronic hepatic failure without coma
        • due to drugs (acute) (subacute) (chronic) - K71.10 Toxic liver disease with hepatic necrosis, without coma
          • with coma - K71.11 Toxic liver disease with hepatic necrosis, with coma
        • with coma - K72.11 Chronic hepatic failure with coma
      • due to drugs (acute) (subacute) (chronic) - K71.10 Toxic liver disease with hepatic necrosis, without coma
        • with coma - K71.11 Toxic liver disease with hepatic necrosis, with coma
      • postprocedural - K91.82 Postprocedural hepatic failure
      • with coma - K72.91 Hepatic failure, unspecified with coma
    • hepatorenal - K76.7 Hepatorenal syndrome
    • induction (of labor) - O61.9 Failed induction of labor, unspecified
      • abortion - See: Abortion, attempted;
      • by
        • oxytocic drugs - O61.0 Failed medical induction of labor
        • prostaglandins - O61.0 Failed medical induction of labor
      • instrumental - O61.1 Failed instrumental induction of labor
      • mechanical - O61.1 Failed instrumental induction of labor
      • medical - O61.0 Failed medical induction of labor
      • specified NEC - O61.8 Other failed induction of labor
      • surgical - O61.1 Failed instrumental induction of labor
    • intubation during anesthesia - T88.4 Failed or difficult intubation
      • in pregnancy - O29.6 Failed or difficult intubation for anesthesia during pregnancy
      • labor and delivery - O74.7 Failed or difficult intubation for anesthesia during labor and delivery
      • postpartum, puerperal - O89.6 Failed or difficult intubation for anesthesia during the puerperium
    • involution, thymus (gland) - E32.0 Persistent hyperplasia of thymus
    • kidney - See Also: Disease, kidney, chronic; - N19 Unspecified kidney failure
      • acute - See Also: Failure, renal, acute; - N17.9 Acute kidney failure, unspecified
      • diabetic - See: E08-E13 with .22;
    • lactation (complete) - O92.3 Agalactia
      • partial - O92.4 Hypogalactia
    • Leydig's cell, adult - E29.1 Testicular hypofunction
    • liver - See: Failure, hepatic;
    • menstruation at puberty - N91.0 Primary amenorrhea
    • mitral - I05.8 Other rheumatic mitral valve diseases
    • myocardial, myocardium - See Also: Failure, heart; - I50.9 Heart failure, unspecified
      • chronic - See Also: Failure, heart, congestive; - I50.9 Heart failure, unspecified
      • congestive - See Also: Failure, heart, congestive; - I50.9 Heart failure, unspecified
    • Note: heart failure stages A, B, C, and D are based on the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association stages of heart failure, which complement and should not be confused with the New York Heart Association Classification of Heart Failure, into Class I, Class II, Class III, and Class IV
      • stage A - Z91.89 Other specified personal risk factors, not elsewhere classified
      • stage B - See Also: Failure, heart, by type as diastolic or systolic; - I50.9 Heart failure, unspecified
      • stage C - See Also: Failure, heart, by type as diastolic or systolic; - I50.9 Heart failure, unspecified
      • stage D - See Also: Failure, heart, by type as diastolic or systolic, chronic; - I50.84 End stage heart failure
      • systolic (congestive) (left ventricular) - I50.20 Unspecified systolic (congestive) heart failure
        • acute (congestive) - I50.21 Acute systolic (congestive) heart failure
          • and (on) chronic (congestive) - I50.23 Acute on chronic systolic (congestive) heart failure
        • chronic (congestive) - I50.22 Chronic systolic (congestive) heart failure
          • and (on) acute (congestive) - I50.23 Acute on chronic systolic (congestive) heart failure
        • combined with diastolic (congestive) - I50.40 Unspecified combined systolic (congestive) and diastolic (congestive) heart failure
          • acute (congestive) - I50.41 Acute combined systolic (congestive) and diastolic (congestive) heart failure
            • and (on) chronic (congestive) - I50.43 Acute on chronic combined systolic (congestive) and diastolic (congestive) heart failure
          • chronic (congestive) - I50.42 Chronic combined systolic (congestive) and diastolic (congestive) heart failure
            • and (on) acute (congestive) - I50.43 Acute on chronic combined systolic (congestive) and diastolic (congestive) heart failure
      • thyrotoxic - See Also: Thyrotoxicosis; - E05.90 Thyrotoxicosis, unspecified without thyrotoxic crisis or storm
        • with
          • high output - See Also: Thyrotoxicosis; - I50.83 High output heart failure
          • thyroid storm - E05.91 Thyrotoxicosis, unspecified with thyrotoxic crisis or storm
            • high output - See Also: Thyrotoxicosis; - I50.83 High output heart failure
      • valvular - See: Endocarditis;
    • orgasm (female) (psychogenic) - F52.31 Female orgasmic disorder
      • male - F52.32 Male orgasmic disorder
    • ovarian (primary) - E28.39 Other primary ovarian failure
      • iatrogenic - E89.40 Asymptomatic postprocedural ovarian failure
        • asymptomatic - E89.40 Asymptomatic postprocedural ovarian failure
        • symptomatic - E89.41 Symptomatic postprocedural ovarian failure
      • postprocedural (postablative) (postirradiation) (postsurgical) - E89.40 Asymptomatic postprocedural ovarian failure
        • asymptomatic - E89.40 Asymptomatic postprocedural ovarian failure
        • symptomatic - E89.41 Symptomatic postprocedural ovarian failure
    • ovulation causing infertility - N97.0 Female infertility associated with anovulation
    • polyglandular, autoimmune - E31.0 Autoimmune polyglandular failure
    • prosthetic joint implant - See: Complications, joint prosthesis, mechanical, breakdown, by site;
    • renal - N19 Unspecified kidney failure
      • acute - N17.9 Acute kidney failure, unspecified
        • specified NEC - N17.8 Other acute kidney failure
        • with
          • cortical necrosis - N17.1 Acute kidney failure with acute cortical necrosis
          • medullary necrosis - N17.2 Acute kidney failure with medullary necrosis
          • tubular necrosis - N17.0 Acute kidney failure with tubular necrosis
      • chronic - N18.9 Chronic kidney disease, unspecified
        • hypertensive - See: Hypertension, kidney;
      • congenital - P96.0 Congenital renal failure
      • end stage (chronic) - N18.6 End stage renal disease
        • due to hypertension - I12.0 Hypertensive chronic kidney disease with stage 5 chronic kidney disease or end stage renal disease
      • following
        • abortion - See: Abortion by type complicated by specified condition NEC;
        • crushing - T79.5 Traumatic anuria
        • ectopic or molar pregnancy - O08.4 Renal failure following ectopic and molar pregnancy
        • labor and delivery (acute) - O90.4 Postpartum acute kidney failure
      • hypertensive - See: Hypertension, kidney;
      • postprocedural - N99.0 Postprocedural (acute) (chronic) kidney failure
      • with
        • tubular necrosis (acute) - N17.0 Acute kidney failure with tubular necrosis
    • respiration, respiratory - J96.90 Respiratory failure, unspecified, unspecified whether with hypoxia or hypercapnia
      • acute - J96.00 Acute respiratory failure, unspecified whether with hypoxia or hypercapnia
        • with
          • hypercapnia - J96.02 Acute respiratory failure with hypercapnia
          • hypercarbia - J96.02 Acute respiratory failure with hypercapnia
          • hypoxia - J96.01 Acute respiratory failure with hypoxia
      • acute and (on) chronic - J96.20 Acute and chronic respiratory failure, unspecified whether with hypoxia or hypercapnia
        • with
          • hypercapnia - J96.22 Acute and chronic respiratory failure with hypercapnia
          • hypercarbia - J96.22 Acute and chronic respiratory failure with hypercapnia
          • hypoxia - J96.21 Acute and chronic respiratory failure with hypoxia
      • center - G93.89 Other specified disorders of brain
      • chronic - J96.10 Chronic respiratory failure, unspecified whether with hypoxia or hypercapnia
        • with
          • hypercapnia - J96.12 Chronic respiratory failure with hypercapnia
          • hypercarbia - J96.12 Chronic respiratory failure with hypercapnia
          • hypoxia - J96.11 Chronic respiratory failure with hypoxia
      • newborn - P28.5 Respiratory failure of newborn
      • postprocedural (acute) - J95.821 Acute postprocedural respiratory failure
        • acute and chronic - J95.822 Acute and chronic postprocedural respiratory failure
      • with
        • hypercapnia - J96.92 Respiratory failure, unspecified with hypercapnia
        • hypercarbia - J96.92 Respiratory failure, unspecified with hypercapnia
        • hypoxia - J96.91 Respiratory failure, unspecified with hypoxia
    • rotation
      • cecum - Q43.3 Congenital malformations of intestinal fixation
      • colon - Q43.3 Congenital malformations of intestinal fixation
      • intestine - Q43.3 Congenital malformations of intestinal fixation
      • kidney - Q63.2 Ectopic kidney
    • sedation (conscious) (moderate) during procedure - T88.52 Failed moderate sedation during procedure
      • history of - Z92.83 Personal history of failed moderate sedation
    • segmentation - See Also: Fusion;
      • fingers - See: Syndactylism, complex, fingers;
      • vertebra - Q76.49 Other congenital malformations of spine, not associated with scoliosis
        • with scoliosis - Q76.3 Congenital scoliosis due to congenital bony malformation
    • seminiferous tubule, adult - E29.1 Testicular hypofunction
    • senile (general) - R54 Age-related physical debility
    • sexual arousal (male) - F52.21 Male erectile disorder
      • female - F52.22 Female sexual arousal disorder
    • testicular endocrine function - E29.1 Testicular hypofunction
    • to thrive (child over 28 days old) - R62.51 Failure to thrive (child)
      • adult - R62.7 Adult failure to thrive
      • newborn - P92.6 Failure to thrive in newborn
    • transplant - T86.92 Unspecified transplanted organ and tissue failure
      • bone - T86.831 Bone graft failure
        • marrow - T86.02 Bone marrow transplant failure
      • cornea - T86.841 Corneal transplant failure
      • heart - T86.22 Heart transplant failure
        • with lung (s) - T86.32 Heart-lung transplant failure
      • intestine - T86.851 Intestine transplant failure
      • kidney - T86.12 Kidney transplant failure
      • liver - T86.42 Liver transplant failure
      • lung (s) - T86.811 Lung transplant failure
        • with heart - T86.32 Heart-lung transplant failure
      • pancreas - T86.891 Other transplanted tissue failure
      • skin (allograft) (autograft) - T86.821 Skin graft (allograft) (autograft) failure
      • specified organ or tissue NEC - T86.891 Other transplanted tissue failure
      • stem cell (peripheral blood) (umbilical cord) - T86.5 Complications of stem cell transplant
    • trial of labor (with subsequent cesarean delivery) - O66.40 Failed trial of labor, unspecified
      • following previous cesarean delivery - O66.41 Failed attempted vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery
    • tubal ligation - N99.89 Other postprocedural complications and disorders of genitourinary system
    • urinary - See: Disease, kidney, chronic;
    • vacuum extraction NOS (with subsequent cesarean delivery) - O66.5 Attempted application of vacuum extractor and forceps
    • vasectomy - N99.89 Other postprocedural complications and disorders of genitourinary system
    • ventouse NOS (with subsequent cesarean delivery) - O66.5 Attempted application of vacuum extractor and forceps
    • ventricular - See Also: Failure, heart; - I50.9 Heart failure, unspecified
      • left - See Also: Failure, heart, left; - I50.1 Left ventricular failure, unspecified
        • rheumatic (chronic) (inactive) (with chorea) - I09.81 Rheumatic heart failure
          • active or acute - I01.8 Other acute rheumatic heart disease
            • with chorea - I02.0 Rheumatic chorea with heart involvement
        • with rheumatic fever (conditions in I00)
          • active - I01.8 Other acute rheumatic heart disease
            • with chorea - I02.0 Rheumatic chorea with heart involvement
          • inactive or quiescent (with chorea) - I09.81 Rheumatic heart failure
      • right - See: Failure, heart, right;
    • vital centers, newborn - P91.88 Other specified disturbances of cerebral status of newborn

Clinical Terms

The following are some of the clinical term definitions related or applicable to failure, failed within the ICD-10 index for Diseases and Injuries.

Adult: A person having attained full growth or maturity. Adults are of 19 through 44 years of age. For a person between 19 and 24 years of age, YOUNG ADULT is available.

Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principal cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.

Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.

Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.

Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.

Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)

Dilatation: The act of dilating.

Female:

Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.

Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.

Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.

Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.

Hypoxia: Sub-optimal OXYGEN levels in the ambient air of living organisms.

Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.

Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.

Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

Male:

Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first 28 days after birth.

Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).

Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.

Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.

Transplants: Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.

Vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.