Dependence (on) (syndrome)

  • Dependence (on) (syndrome) - F19.20 Other psychoactive substance dependence, uncomplicated
    • alcohol (ethyl) (methyl) (without remission) - F10.20 Alcohol dependence, uncomplicated
      • counseling and surveillance - Z71.41 Alcohol abuse counseling and surveillance of alcoholic
      • with
        • amnestic disorder, persisting - F10.26 Alcohol dependence with alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorder
        • anxiety disorder - F10.280 Alcohol dependence with alcohol-induced anxiety disorder
        • dementia, persisting - F10.27 Alcohol dependence with alcohol-induced persisting dementia
        • intoxication - F10.229 Alcohol dependence with intoxication, unspecified
          • uncomplicated - F10.220 Alcohol dependence with intoxication, uncomplicated
          • with delirium - F10.221 Alcohol dependence with intoxication delirium
        • mood disorder - F10.24 Alcohol dependence with alcohol-induced mood disorder
        • psychotic disorder - F10.259 Alcohol dependence with alcohol-induced psychotic disorder, unspecified
          • with
            • delusions - F10.250 Alcohol dependence with alcohol-induced psychotic disorder with delusions
            • hallucinations - F10.251 Alcohol dependence with alcohol-induced psychotic disorder with hallucinations
        • remission - F10.21 Alcohol dependence, in remission
        • sexual dysfunction - F10.281 Alcohol dependence with alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction
        • sleep disorder - F10.282 Alcohol dependence with alcohol-induced sleep disorder
        • specified disorder NEC - F10.288 Alcohol dependence with other alcohol-induced disorder
        • withdrawal - F10.239 Alcohol dependence with withdrawal, unspecified
          • uncomplicated - F10.230 Alcohol dependence with withdrawal, uncomplicated
          • with
            • delirium - F10.231 Alcohol dependence with withdrawal delirium
            • perceptual disturbance - F10.232 Alcohol dependence with withdrawal with perceptual disturbance
    • amobarbital - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • amphetamine (s) (type) - See: Dependence, drug, stimulant NEC;
    • amytal (sodium) - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • analgesic NEC - F55.8 Abuse of other non-psychoactive substances
    • anesthetic (agent) (gas) (general) (local) NEC - See: Dependence, drug, psychoactive NEC;
    • anxiolytic NEC - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • barbital (s) - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • barbiturate (s) (compounds) (drugs classifiable to T42) - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • benzedrine - See: Dependence, drug, stimulant NEC;
    • bhang - See: Dependence, drug, cannabis;
    • bromide (s) NEC - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • caffeine - See: Dependence, drug, stimulant NEC;
    • cannabis (sativa) (indica) (resin) (derivatives) (type) - See: Dependence, drug, cannabis;
    • chloral (betaine) (hydrate) - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • chlordiazepoxide - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • coca (leaf) (derivatives) - See: Dependence, drug, cocaine;
    • cocaine - See: Dependence, drug, cocaine;
    • codeine - See: Dependence, drug, opioid;
    • combinations of drugs - F19.20 Other psychoactive substance dependence, uncomplicated
    • dagga - See: Dependence, drug, cannabis;
    • demerol - See: Dependence, drug, opioid;
    • dexamphetamine - See: Dependence, drug, stimulant NEC;
    • dexedrine - See: Dependence, drug, stimulant NEC;
    • dextromethorphan - See: Dependence, drug, opioid;
    • dextromoramide - See: Dependence, drug, opioid;
    • dextro-nor-pseudo-ephedrine - See: Dependence, drug, stimulant NEC;
    • dextrorphan - See: Dependence, drug, opioid;
    • diazepam - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • dilaudid - See: Dependence, drug, opioid;
    • D-lysergic acid diethylamide - See: Dependence, drug, hallucinogen;
    • drug NEC - F19.20 Other psychoactive substance dependence, uncomplicated
      • cannabis - F12.20 Cannabis dependence, uncomplicated
        • in remission - F12.21 Cannabis dependence, in remission
        • with
          • anxiety disorder - F12.280 Cannabis dependence with cannabis-induced anxiety disorder
          • intoxication - F12.229 Cannabis dependence with intoxication, unspecified
            • uncomplicated - F12.220 Cannabis dependence with intoxication, uncomplicated
            • with
              • delirium - F12.221 Cannabis dependence with intoxication delirium
              • perceptual disturbance - F12.222 Cannabis dependence with intoxication with perceptual disturbance
          • other specified disorder - F12.288 Cannabis dependence with other cannabis-induced disorder
          • psychosis - F12.259 Cannabis dependence with psychotic disorder, unspecified
            • delusions - F12.250 Cannabis dependence with psychotic disorder with delusions
            • hallucinations - F12.251 Cannabis dependence with psychotic disorder with hallucinations
          • unspecified disorder - F12.29 Cannabis dependence with unspecified cannabis-induced disorder
          • withdrawal - F12.23 Cannabis dependence with withdrawal
      • cocaine - F14.20 Cocaine dependence, uncomplicated
        • in remission - F14.21 Cocaine dependence, in remission
        • with
          • anxiety disorder - F14.280 Cocaine dependence with cocaine-induced anxiety disorder
          • intoxication - F14.229 Cocaine dependence with intoxication, unspecified
            • uncomplicated - F14.220 Cocaine dependence with intoxication, uncomplicated
            • with
              • delirium - F14.221 Cocaine dependence with intoxication delirium
              • perceptual disturbance - F14.222 Cocaine dependence with intoxication with perceptual disturbance
          • mood disorder - F14.24 Cocaine dependence with cocaine-induced mood disorder
          • other specified disorder - F14.288 Cocaine dependence with other cocaine-induced disorder
          • psychosis - F14.259 Cocaine dependence with cocaine-induced psychotic disorder, unspecified
            • delusions - F14.250 Cocaine dependence with cocaine-induced psychotic disorder with delusions
            • hallucinations - F14.251 Cocaine dependence with cocaine-induced psychotic disorder with hallucinations
          • sexual dysfunction - F14.281 Cocaine dependence with cocaine-induced sexual dysfunction
          • sleep disorder - F14.282 Cocaine dependence with cocaine-induced sleep disorder
          • unspecified disorder - F14.29 Cocaine dependence with unspecified cocaine-induced disorder
          • withdrawal - F14.23 Cocaine dependence with withdrawal
        • withdrawal symptoms in newborn - P96.1 Neonatal withdrawal symptoms from maternal use of drugs of addiction
      • counseling and surveillance - Z71.51 Drug abuse counseling and surveillance of drug abuser
      • hallucinogen - F16.20 Hallucinogen dependence, uncomplicated
        • in remission - F16.21 Hallucinogen dependence, in remission
        • with
          • anxiety disorder - F16.280 Hallucinogen dependence with hallucinogen-induced anxiety disorder
          • flashbacks - F16.283 Hallucinogen dependence with hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (flashbacks)
          • intoxication - F16.229 Hallucinogen dependence with intoxication, unspecified
            • uncomplicated - F16.220 Hallucinogen dependence with intoxication, uncomplicated
            • with delirium - F16.221 Hallucinogen dependence with intoxication with delirium
          • mood disorder - F16.24 Hallucinogen dependence with hallucinogen-induced mood disorder
          • other specified disorder - F16.288 Hallucinogen dependence with other hallucinogen-induced disorder
          • perception disorder, persisting - F16.283 Hallucinogen dependence with hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (flashbacks)
          • psychosis - F16.259 Hallucinogen dependence with hallucinogen-induced psychotic disorder, unspecified
            • delusions - F16.250 Hallucinogen dependence with hallucinogen-induced psychotic disorder with delusions
            • hallucinations - F16.251 Hallucinogen dependence with hallucinogen-induced psychotic disorder with hallucinations
          • unspecified disorder - F16.29 Hallucinogen dependence with unspecified hallucinogen-induced disorder
      • in remission - F19.21 Other psychoactive substance dependence, in remission
      • inhalant - F18.20 Inhalant dependence, uncomplicated
        • in remission - F18.21 Inhalant dependence, in remission
        • with
          • anxiety disorder - F18.280 Inhalant dependence with inhalant-induced anxiety disorder
          • dementia, persisting - F18.27 Inhalant dependence with inhalant-induced dementia
          • intoxication - F18.229 Inhalant dependence with intoxication, unspecified
            • uncomplicated - F18.220 Inhalant dependence with intoxication, uncomplicated
            • with delirium - F18.221 Inhalant dependence with intoxication delirium
          • mood disorder - F18.24 Inhalant dependence with inhalant-induced mood disorder
          • other specified disorder - F18.288 Inhalant dependence with other inhalant-induced disorder
          • psychosis - F18.259 Inhalant dependence with inhalant-induced psychotic disorder, unspecified
            • delusions - F18.250 Inhalant dependence with inhalant-induced psychotic disorder with delusions
            • hallucinations - F18.251 Inhalant dependence with inhalant-induced psychotic disorder with hallucinations
          • unspecified disorder - F18.29 Inhalant dependence with unspecified inhalant-induced disorder
      • nicotine - F17.200 Nicotine dependence, unspecified, uncomplicated
        • chewing tobacco - F17.220 Nicotine dependence, chewing tobacco, uncomplicated
          • with disorder - F17.229 Nicotine dependence, chewing tobacco, with unspecified nicotine-induced disorders
            • in remission - F17.221 Nicotine dependence, chewing tobacco, in remission
            • specified disorder NEC - F17.228 Nicotine dependence, chewing tobacco, with other nicotine-induced disorders
            • withdrawal - F17.223 Nicotine dependence, chewing tobacco, with withdrawal
        • cigarettes - F17.210 Nicotine dependence, cigarettes, uncomplicated
          • with disorder - F17.219 Nicotine dependence, cigarettes, with unspecified nicotine-induced disorders
            • in remission - F17.211 Nicotine dependence, cigarettes, in remission
            • specified disorder NEC - F17.218 Nicotine dependence, cigarettes, with other nicotine-induced disorders
            • withdrawal - F17.213 Nicotine dependence, cigarettes, with withdrawal
        • specified product NEC - F17.290 Nicotine dependence, other tobacco product, uncomplicated
          • with disorder - F17.299 Nicotine dependence, other tobacco product, with unspecified nicotine-induced disorders
            • remission - F17.291 Nicotine dependence, other tobacco product, in remission
            • specified disorder NEC - F17.298 Nicotine dependence, other tobacco product, with other nicotine-induced disorders
            • withdrawal - F17.293 Nicotine dependence, other tobacco product, with withdrawal
        • with disorder - F17.209 Nicotine dependence, unspecified, with unspecified nicotine-induced disorders
          • in remission - F17.201 Nicotine dependence, unspecified, in remission
          • specified disorder NEC - F17.208 Nicotine dependence, unspecified, with other nicotine-induced disorders
          • withdrawal - F17.203 Nicotine dependence unspecified, with withdrawal
      • opioid - F11.20 Opioid dependence, uncomplicated
        • in remission - F11.21 Opioid dependence, in remission
        • with
          • intoxication - F11.229 Opioid dependence with intoxication, unspecified
            • uncomplicated - F11.220 Opioid dependence with intoxication, uncomplicated
            • with
              • delirium - F11.221 Opioid dependence with intoxication delirium
              • perceptual disturbance - F11.222 Opioid dependence with intoxication with perceptual disturbance
          • mood disorder - F11.24 Opioid dependence with opioid-induced mood disorder
          • other specified disorder - F11.288 Opioid dependence with other opioid-induced disorder
          • psychosis - F11.259 Opioid dependence with opioid-induced psychotic disorder, unspecified
            • delusions - F11.250 Opioid dependence with opioid-induced psychotic disorder with delusions
            • hallucinations - F11.251 Opioid dependence with opioid-induced psychotic disorder with hallucinations
          • sexual dysfunction - F11.281 Opioid dependence with opioid-induced sexual dysfunction
          • sleep disorder - F11.282 Opioid dependence with opioid-induced sleep disorder
          • unspecified disorder - F11.29 Opioid dependence with unspecified opioid-induced disorder
          • withdrawal - F11.23 Opioid dependence with withdrawal
      • psychoactive NEC - F19.20 Other psychoactive substance dependence, uncomplicated
        • with
          • amnestic disorder - F19.26 Other psychoactive substance dependence with psychoactive substance-induced persisting amnestic disorder
          • anxiety disorder - F19.280 Other psychoactive substance dependence with psychoactive substance-induced anxiety disorder
          • dementia - F19.27 Other psychoactive substance dependence with psychoactive substance-induced persisting dementia
          • intoxication - F19.229 Other psychoactive substance dependence with intoxication, unspecified
            • uncomplicated - F19.220 Other psychoactive substance dependence with intoxication, uncomplicated
            • with
              • delirium - F19.221 Other psychoactive substance dependence with intoxication delirium
              • perceptual disturbance - F19.222 Other psychoactive substance dependence with intoxication with perceptual disturbance
          • mood disorder - F19.24 Other psychoactive substance dependence with psychoactive substance-induced mood disorder
          • other specified disorder - F19.288 Other psychoactive substance dependence with other psychoactive substance-induced disorder
          • psychosis - F19.259 Other psychoactive substance dependence with psychoactive substance-induced psychotic disorder, unspecified
            • delusions - F19.250 Other psychoactive substance dependence with psychoactive substance-induced psychotic disorder with delusions
            • hallucinations - F19.251 Other psychoactive substance dependence with psychoactive substance-induced psychotic disorder with hallucinations
          • sexual dysfunction - F19.281 Other psychoactive substance dependence with psychoactive substance-induced sexual dysfunction
          • sleep disorder - F19.282 Other psychoactive substance dependence with psychoactive substance-induced sleep disorder
          • unspecified disorder - F19.29 Other psychoactive substance dependence with unspecified psychoactive substance-induced disorder
          • withdrawal - F19.239 Other psychoactive substance dependence with withdrawal, unspecified
            • uncomplicated - F19.230 Other psychoactive substance dependence with withdrawal, uncomplicated
            • with
              • delirium - F19.231 Other psychoactive substance dependence with withdrawal delirium
              • perceptual disturbance - F19.232 Other psychoactive substance dependence with withdrawal with perceptual disturbance
      • sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic - F13.20 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence, uncomplicated
        • in remission - F13.21 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence, in remission
        • with
          • amnestic disorder - F13.26 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic-induced persisting amnestic disorder
          • anxiety disorder - F13.280 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic-induced anxiety disorder
          • dementia, persisting - F13.27 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic-induced persisting dementia
          • intoxication - F13.229 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with intoxication, unspecified
            • uncomplicated - F13.220 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with intoxication, uncomplicated
            • with delirium - F13.221 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with intoxication delirium
          • mood disorder - F13.24 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic-induced mood disorder
          • other specified disorder - F13.288 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with other sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic-induced disorder
          • psychosis - F13.259 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic-induced psychotic disorder, unspecified
            • delusions - F13.250 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic-induced psychotic disorder with delusions
            • hallucinations - F13.251 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic-induced psychotic disorder with hallucinations
          • sexual dysfunction - F13.281 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic-induced sexual dysfunction
          • sleep disorder - F13.282 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic-induced sleep disorder
          • unspecified disorder - F13.29 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with unspecified sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic-induced disorder
          • withdrawal - F13.239 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with withdrawal, unspecified
            • uncomplicated - F13.230 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with withdrawal, uncomplicated
            • with
              • delirium - F13.231 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with withdrawal delirium
              • perceptual disturbance - F13.232 Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence with withdrawal with perceptual disturbance
      • stimulant NEC - F15.20 Other stimulant dependence, uncomplicated
        • in remission - F15.21 Other stimulant dependence, in remission
        • with
          • anxiety disorder - F15.280 Other stimulant dependence with stimulant-induced anxiety disorder
          • intoxication - F15.229 Other stimulant dependence with intoxication, unspecified
            • uncomplicated - F15.220 Other stimulant dependence with intoxication, uncomplicated
            • with
              • delirium - F15.221 Other stimulant dependence with intoxication delirium
              • perceptual disturbance - F15.222 Other stimulant dependence with intoxication with perceptual disturbance
          • mood disorder - F15.24 Other stimulant dependence with stimulant-induced mood disorder
          • other specified disorder - F15.288 Other stimulant dependence with other stimulant-induced disorder
          • psychosis - F15.259 Other stimulant dependence with stimulant-induced psychotic disorder, unspecified
            • delusions - F15.250 Other stimulant dependence with stimulant-induced psychotic disorder with delusions
            • hallucinations - F15.251 Other stimulant dependence with stimulant-induced psychotic disorder with hallucinations
          • sexual dysfunction - F15.281 Other stimulant dependence with stimulant-induced sexual dysfunction
          • sleep disorder - F15.282 Other stimulant dependence with stimulant-induced sleep disorder
          • unspecified disorder - F15.29 Other stimulant dependence with unspecified stimulant-induced disorder
          • withdrawal - F15.23 Other stimulant dependence with withdrawal
      • with sleep disorder - F19.282 Other psychoactive substance dependence with psychoactive substance-induced sleep disorder
    • ethyl
      • alcohol (without remission) - F10.20 Alcohol dependence, uncomplicated
        • with remission - F10.21 Alcohol dependence, in remission
      • bromide - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
      • carbamate - F19.20 Other psychoactive substance dependence, uncomplicated
      • chloride - F19.20 Other psychoactive substance dependence, uncomplicated
      • morphine - See: Dependence, drug, opioid;
    • ganja - See: Dependence, drug, cannabis;
    • glue (airplane) (sniffing) - See: Dependence, drug, inhalant;
    • glutethimide - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • hallucinogenics - See: Dependence, drug, hallucinogen;
    • hashish - See: Dependence, drug, cannabis;
    • hemp - See: Dependence, drug, cannabis;
    • heroin (salt) (any) - See: Dependence, drug, opioid;
    • hypnotic NEC - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • Indian hemp - See: Dependence, drug, cannabis;
    • inhalants - See: Dependence, drug, inhalant;
    • khat - See: Dependence, drug, stimulant NEC;
    • laudanum - See: Dependence, drug, opioid;
    • LSD (-25) (derivatives) - See: Dependence, drug, hallucinogen;
    • luminal - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • lysergic acid - See: Dependence, drug, hallucinogen;
    • maconha - See: Dependence, drug, cannabis;
    • marihuana - See: Dependence, drug, cannabis;
    • meprobamate - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • mescaline - See: Dependence, drug, hallucinogen;
    • methadone - See: Dependence, drug, opioid;
    • methamphetamine (s) - See: Dependence, drug, stimulant NEC;
    • methaqualone - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • methyl
      • alcohol (without remission) - F10.20 Alcohol dependence, uncomplicated
        • with remission - F10.21 Alcohol dependence, in remission
      • bromide - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
      • morphine - See: Dependence, drug, opioid;
      • phenidate - See: Dependence, drug, stimulant NEC;
      • sulfonal - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • morphine (sulfate) (sulfite) (type) - See: Dependence, drug, opioid;
    • narcotic (drug) NEC - See: Dependence, drug, opioid;
    • nembutal - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • neraval - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • neravan - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • neurobarb - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • nicotine - See: Dependence, drug, nicotine;
    • nitrous oxide - F19.20 Other psychoactive substance dependence, uncomplicated
    • nonbarbiturate sedatives and tranquilizers with similar effect - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • on
      • artificial heart (fully implantable) (mechanical) - Z95.812 Presence of fully implantable artificial heart
      • aspirator - Z99.0 Dependence on aspirator
      • care provider (because of) - Z74.9 Problem related to care provider dependency, unspecified
        • impaired mobility - Z74.09 Other reduced mobility
        • need for
          • assistance with personal care - Z74.1 Need for assistance with personal care
          • continuous supervision - Z74.3 Need for continuous supervision
        • no other household member able to render care - Z74.2 Need for assistance at home and no other household member able to render care
        • specified reason NEC - Z74.8 Other problems related to care provider dependency
      • machine - Z99.89 Dependence on other enabling machines and devices
        • enabling NEC - Z99.89 Dependence on other enabling machines and devices
        • specified type NEC - Z99.89 Dependence on other enabling machines and devices
      • renal dialysis (hemodialysis) (peritoneal) - Z99.2 Dependence on renal dialysis
      • respirator - Z99.11 Dependence on respirator [ventilator] status
      • ventilator - Z99.11 Dependence on respirator [ventilator] status
      • wheelchair - Z99.3 Dependence on wheelchair
    • opiate - See: Dependence, drug, opioid;
    • opioids - See: Dependence, drug, opioid;
    • opium (alkaloids) (derivatives) (tincture) - See: Dependence, drug, opioid;
    • oxygen (long-term) (supplemental) - Z99.81 Dependence on supplemental oxygen
    • paraldehyde - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • paregoric - See: Dependence, drug, opioid;
    • pentobarbital - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • pentobarbitone (sodium) - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • pentothal - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • peyote - See: Dependence, drug, hallucinogen;
    • phenmetrazine - See: Dependence, drug, stimulant NEC;
    • phenobarbital - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • polysubstance - F19.20 Other psychoactive substance dependence, uncomplicated
    • psilocibin, psilocin, psilocyn, psilocyline - See: Dependence, drug, hallucinogen;
    • psychostimulant NEC - See: Dependence, drug, stimulant NEC;
    • secobarbital - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • seconal - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • sedative NEC - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • specified drug NEC - See: Dependence, drug;
    • stimulant NEC - See: Dependence, drug, stimulant NEC;
    • substance NEC - See: Dependence, drug;
    • supplemental oxygen - Z99.81 Dependence on supplemental oxygen
    • tobacco - See: Dependence, drug, nicotine;
      • counseling and surveillance - Z71.6 Tobacco abuse counseling
    • tranquilizer NEC - See: Dependence, drug, sedative;
    • vitamin B6 - E53.1 Pyridoxine deficiency
    • volatile solvents - See: Dependence, drug, inhalant;
    • with remission - F19.21 Other psychoactive substance dependence, in remission

Footnotes

Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.

Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.

Cannabis: The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.

Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.

Codeine: An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.

Delirium: A disorder characterized by CONFUSION; inattentiveness; disorientation; ILLUSIONS; HALLUCINATIONS; agitation; and in some instances autonomic nervous system overactivity. It may result from toxic/metabolic conditions or structural brain lesions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp411-2)

Delusions: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.

Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.

Dextromethorphan: Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.

Dextrorphan: Dextro form of levorphanol. It acts as a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, among other effects, and has been proposed as a neuroprotective agent. It is also a metabolite of DEXTROMETHORPHAN.

Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.

Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.

Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.

Lysergic Acid:

Mescaline: Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.

Methadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)

Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.

Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.

Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.

Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.

Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.

Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)

Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)

Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.

Sleep Wake Disorders: Abnormal sleep-wake schedule or pattern associated with the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM which affect the length, timing, and/or rigidity of the sleep-wake cycle relative to the day-night cycle.

Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.

Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.

Vitamin B 6: VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.

Wheelchairs: Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.

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