Blood Transfusion - The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Brain Ischemia - Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Circadian Rhythm - The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs or environmental and physiological stimuli.
Dyspnea - Difficult or labored breathing.
Dyspnea, Paroxysmal - A disorder characterized by sudden attacks of respiratory distress in at rest patients with HEART FAILURE and PULMONARY EDEMA. It usually occurs at night after several hours of sleep in a reclining position. Patients awaken with a feeling of suffocation, coughing, a cold sweat, and TACHYCARDIA. When there is significant WHEEZING, it is called CARDIAC ASTHMA.
Hypercapnia - A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Hyperventilation - A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
Hypoventilation - A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.
Laryngismus - A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.
Mouth Breathing - Abnormal breathing through the mouth, usually associated with obstructive disorders of the nasal passages.
Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome - HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
Respiratory Insufficiency - Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Respiratory Rate - The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
Sleep Apnea, Central - A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.
Sleep Wake Disorders - Abnormal sleep-wake schedule or pattern associated with the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM which affect the length, timing, and/or rigidity of the sleep-wake cycle relative to the day-night cycle.
Sneezing - The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Snoring - Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.
Syncope - A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)
Tachypnea - Increased RESPIRATORY RATE.
Transfusion Reaction - Complications of BLOOD TRANSFUSION. Included adverse reactions are common allergic and febrile reactions; hemolytic (delayed and acute) reactions; and other non-hemolytic adverse reactions such as infections and adverse immune reactions related to immunocompatibility.
Xerostomia - Decreased salivary flow.
Type 1 Excludes
A type 1 excludes note is a pure excludes note. It means "NOT CODED HERE!" An Excludes1 note indicates that the code excluded should never be used at the same time as the code above the Excludes1 note. An Excludes1 is used when two conditions cannot occur together, such as a congenital form versus an acquired form of the same condition.