Information for Patients
A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of pregnancy. One out of every 33 babies in the United States is born with a birth defect.
A birth defect may affect how the body looks, works or both. Some birth defects like cleft lip or neural tube defects are structural problems that can be easy to see. To find others, like heart defects, doctors use special tests. Birth defects can vary from mild to severe. Some result from exposures to medicines or chemicals. For example, alcohol abuse can cause fetal alcohol syndrome. Infections during pregnancy can also result in birth defects. For most birth defects, the cause is unknown.
Some birth defects can be prevented. Taking folic acid can help prevent some birth defects. Talk to your doctor about any medicines you take. Some medicines can cause serious birth defects.
Babies with birth defects may need surgery or other medical treatments. Today, doctors can diagnose many birth defects in the womb. This enables them to treat or even correct some problems before the baby is born.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Fetal Health and Development
A normal pregnancy lasts nine months. Each three-month period of pregnancy is called a trimester. During each trimester, the fetus grows and develops. There are specific prenatal tests to monitor both the mother's health and fetal health during each trimester.
With modern technology, health professionals can
- Detect birth defects
- Identify problems that may affect childbirth
- Correct some kinds of fetal problems before the baby is born
- Developmental disorders of the female reproductive tract
- Fetal development
- Intrauterine growth restriction
Health Problems in Pregnancy
Every pregnancy has some risk of problems. The causes can be conditions you already have or conditions you develop. They also include being pregnant with more than one baby, previous problem pregnancies, or being over age 35. They can affect your health and the health of your baby.
If you have a chronic condition, you should talk to your health care provider about how to minimize your risk before you get pregnant. Once you are pregnant, you may need a health care team to monitor your pregnancy. Examples of common conditions that can complicate a pregnancy include
- Heart disease
- High blood pressure
- Kidney problems
- Autoimmune disorders
- Sexually transmitted diseases
Other conditions that can make pregnancy risky can happen while you are pregnant - for example, gestational diabetes and Rh incompatibility. Good prenatal care can help detect and treat them.
Some discomforts, like nausea, back pain, and fatigue, are common during pregnancy. Sometimes it is hard to know what is normal. Call your doctor or midwife if something is bothering or worrying you.
- Bed rest during pregnancy
- Hyperemesis gravidarum
- Insufficient cervix
- Morning sickness
- Morning sickness
- Placenta abruptio
- Placenta abruptio
- Placenta previa
- Serum progesterone
- Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy
- Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy
- Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy
General Equivalence Map Definitions
The ICD-9 and ICD-10 GEMs are used to facilitate linking between the diagnosis codes in ICD-9-CM and the new ICD-10-CM code set. The GEMs are the raw material from which providers, health information vendors and payers can derive specific applied mappings to meet their needs.
- Approximate Flag - The approximate flag is on, indicating that the relationship between the code in the source system and the code in the target system is an approximate equivalent.
- No Map Flag - The no map flag indicates that a code in the source system is not linked to any code in the target system.
- Combination Flag - The combination flag indicates that more than one code in the target system is required to satisfy the full equivalent meaning of a code in the source system.