Information for Patients
What is aplastic anemia?
Aplastic anemia is a rare but serious blood disorder. If you have it, your bone marrow doesn't make enough new blood cells. It happens when there is damage to stem cells inside your bone marrow. There are different types of aplastic anemia, including Fanconi anemia.
What causes aplastic anemia?
The causes of aplastic anemia can include:
- Autoimmune disorders, which are the most common cause
- Certain inherited gene changes, such as the one that can cause Fanconi anemia
- Toxic substances, such as pesticides, arsenic, and benzene
- Radiation therapy and chemotherapy for cancer
- Certain medicines
- Viral infections such as hepatitis, Epstein-Barr virus, or HIV
In many people, the cause is unknown. This is called idiopathic aplastic anemia.
What are the symptoms of aplastic anemia?
Aplastic anemia can develop suddenly or slowly. It can be mild or severe. The symptoms of aplastic anemia can include:
- Shortness of breath
- Easy bruising or bleeding
What other problems can aplastic anemia cause?
Aplastic anemia can cause other problems, including frequent infections and bleeding. It raises your risk of developing a serious blood disorder.
If not treated, aplastic anemia can also lead to heart problems such as an arrhythmia (a problem with the rate or rhythm of your heartbeat), an enlarged heart, or heart failure.
How is aplastic anemia diagnosed?
To find out if you have aplastic anemia, your doctor will:
- Take your medical and your family medical histories
- Do a physical exam
- Order tests, such as tests to check if you have low numbers of cells in your bone marrow and blood
What are the treatments for aplastic anemia?
If you have aplastic anemia, your doctor will create a treatment plan for you. The plan will be based on how severe the anemia is and what is causing it. Treatments can include:
- Blood transfusions
- Blood and marrow stem cell transplants
- Medicines to suppress your immune system
Because of the risk of blood disorders, your doctor will monitor your condition and screen you for blood disorders regularly.
NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
General Equivalence Map Definitions
The ICD-9 and ICD-10 GEMs are used to facilitate linking between the diagnosis codes in ICD-9-CM and the new ICD-10-CM code set. The GEMs are the raw material from which providers, health information vendors and payers can derive specific applied mappings to meet their needs.
- Approximate Flag - The approximate flag is on, indicating that the relationship between the code in the source system and the code in the target system is an approximate equivalent.
- No Map Flag - The no map flag indicates that a code in the source system is not linked to any code in the target system.
- Combination Flag - The combination flag indicates that more than one code in the target system is required to satisfy the full equivalent meaning of a code in the source system.
Index of Diseases and Injuries Definitions
- And - The word "and" should be interpreted to mean either "and" or "or" when it appears in a title.
- Code also note - A "code also" note instructs that two codes may be required to fully describe a condition, but this note does not provide sequencing direction.
- Code first - Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology. For such conditions, the ICD-10-CM has a coding convention that requires the underlying condition be sequenced first followed by the manifestation. Wherever such a combination exists, there is a "use additional code" note at the etiology code, and a "code first" note at the manifestation code. These instructional notes indicate the proper sequencing order of the codes, etiology followed by manifestation.
- Type 1 Excludes Notes - A type 1 Excludes note is a pure excludes note. It means "NOT CODED HERE!" An Excludes1 note indicates that the code excluded should never be used at the same time as the code above the Excludes1 note. An Excludes1 is used when two conditions cannot occur together, such as a congenital form versus an acquired form of the same condition.
- Type 2 Excludes Notes - A type 2 Excludes note represents "Not included here". An excludes2 note indicates that the condition excluded is not part of the condition represented by the code, but a patient may have both conditions at the same time. When an Excludes2 note appears under a code, it is acceptable to use both the code and the excluded code together, when appropriate.
- Includes Notes - This note appears immediately under a three character code title to further define, or give examples of, the content of the category.
- Inclusion terms - List of terms is included under some codes. These terms are the conditions for which that code is to be used. The terms may be synonyms of the code title, or, in the case of "other specified" codes, the terms are a list of the various conditions assigned to that code. The inclusion terms are not necessarily exhaustive. Additional terms found only in the Alphabetic Index may also be assigned to a code.
- NEC "Not elsewhere classifiable" - This abbreviation in the Alphabetic Index represents "other specified". When a specific code is not available for a condition, the Alphabetic Index directs the coder to the "other specified” code in the Tabular List.
- NOS "Not otherwise specified" - This abbreviation is the equivalent of unspecified.
- See - The "see" instruction following a main term in the Alphabetic Index indicates that another term should be referenced. It is necessary to go to the main term referenced with the "see" note to locate the correct code.
- See Also - A "see also" instruction following a main term in the Alphabetic Index instructs that there is another main term that may also be referenced that may provide additional Alphabetic Index entries that may be useful. It is not necessary to follow the "see also" note when the original main term provides the necessary code.
- 7th Characters - Certain ICD-10-CM categories have applicable 7th characters. The applicable 7th character is required for all codes within the category, or as the notes in the Tabular List instruct. The 7th character must always be the 7th character in the data field. If a code that requires a 7th character is not 6 characters, a placeholder X must be used to fill in the empty characters.
- With - The word "with" should be interpreted to mean "associated with" or "due to" when it appears in a code title, the Alphabetic Index, or an instructional note in the Tabular List. The word "with" in the Alphabetic Index is sequenced immediately following the main term, not in alphabetical order.