Information for Patients
Hand Injuries and Disorders
No matter how old you are or what you do for a living, you are always using your hands. When there is something wrong with them, you may not be able to do your regular activities.
Hand problems include
- Carpal tunnel syndrome - compression of a nerve as it goes through the wrist, often making your fingers feel numb
- Injuries that result in fractures, ruptured ligaments and dislocations
- Osteoarthritis - wear-and-tear arthritis, which can also cause deformity
- Tendinitis - irritation of the tendons
- Disorders and injuries of your fingers and thumb
What are vascular diseases?
Your vascular system is your body's network of blood vessels. It includes your
- Arteries, which carry oxygen-rich blood from your heart to your tissues and organs
- Veins, which carry the blood and waste products back to your heart
- Capillaries, which are tiny blood vessels that connect your small arteries to your small veins. The walls of the capillaries are thin and leaky, to allow for an exchange of materials between your tissues and blood.
Vascular diseases are conditions which affect your vascular system. They are common and can be serious. Some types include
- Aneurysm - a bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery
- Atherosclerosis - a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood.
- Blood clots, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism
- Coronary artery disease and carotid artery disease, diseases that involve the narrowing or blockage of an artery. The cause is usually a buildup of plaque.
- Raynaud's disease - a disorder that causes the blood vessels to narrow when you are cold or feeling stressed
- Stroke - a serious condition that happens when blood flow to your brain stops.
- Varicose veins - swollen, twisted veins that you can see just under the skin
- Vasculitis - inflammation of the blood vessels
What causes vascular diseases?
The causes of vascular diseases depend on the specific disease. These causes include
- Heart diseases such as high cholesterol and high blood pressure
- Medicines, including hormones
Sometimes the cause is unknown.
Who is at risk for vascular diseases?
The risk factors for vascular diseases can vary, depending on the specific disease. But some of the more common risk factors include
- Age - your risk of some diseases goes up as you get older
- Conditions that can affect the heart and blood vessels, such as diabetes or high cholesterol
- Family history of vascular or heart diseases
- Infection or injury that damages your veins
- Lack of exercise
- Sitting or standing still for long periods of time
What are the symptoms of vascular diseases?
The symptoms for each disease are different.
How are vascular diseases diagnosed?
To make a diagnosis, your health care provider will do a physical exam and ask about your symptoms and medical history. You may have imaging tests and/or blood tests.
How are vascular diseases treated?
Which treatment you get depends on which vascular disease you have and how severe it is. Types of treatments for vascular diseases include
- Lifestyle changes, such as eating a heart-healthy diet and getting more exercise
- Medicines, such as blood pressure medicines, blood thinners, cholesterol medicines, and clot-dissolving drugs. In some cases, providers use a catheter to send medicine directly to a blood vessel.
- Non-surgical procedures, such as angioplasty, stenting, and vein ablation
Can vascular diseases be prevented?
There are steps you can take to help prevent vascular diseases:
- Make healthy lifestyle changes, such as eating a heart-healthy diet and getting more exercise
- Don't smoke. If you are already a smoker, talk to your health care provider for help in finding the best way for you to quit.
- Keep your blood pressure and cholesterol in check
- If you have diabetes, control your blood sugar
- Try not to sit or stand for up long periods of time. If you do need to sit all day, get up and move around every hour or so. If you traveling on a long trip, you can also wear compression stockings and regularly stretch your legs.
Wrist Injuries and Disorders
Your wrist connects your hand to your forearm. It is not one big joint; it has several small joints. This makes it flexible and allows you to move your hand in different ways. The wrist has two big forearm bones and eight small bones known as carpals. It also has tendons and ligaments, which are connective tissues. Tendons connect muscles to bones. Ligaments connect bones to each other.
What are the types of wrist injuries and disorders?
Some of the more common types of wrist injuries and disorders are
- Carpal tunnel syndrome, which happens when a nerve that runs from your forearm into your palm becomes squeezed at the wrist
- Ganglion cysts, which are noncancerous lumps or masses
- Gout, which is a form of arthritis caused by a buildup of uric acid in your joints
- Fractures (broken bones)
- Osteoarthritis, the most common type of arthritis. It is caused by wear and tear of the joints.
- Sprains and strains, which are injuries to ligaments and injuries to muscles or tendons
- Tendinitis, inflammation of a tendon, usually due to overuse
Who is at risk for wrist injuries and disorders?
Certain things can put you at higher risk of having a wrist problem, including
- Doing sports, which can put you at risk for injuries and puts stress on your wrist. For example, you may fall on your outstretched hand when you are skating or snowboarding. Your wrist could be injured while doing contact sports. And other sports such as gymnastics and basketball can strain your wrists.
- Doing repetitive wrist motions, such as typing on a keyboard, working on an assembly line, or using power tools.
- Having certain diseases. For example, rheumatoid arthritis can cause wrist pain.
What are the symptoms of wrist injuries and disorders?
The symptoms of a wrist problem can vary, depending on the problem. A common symptom is wrist pain. Some other possible symptoms include swelling, a decrease in wrist strength, and sudden numbness or tingling.
How are wrist injuries and disorders diagnosed?
To make a diagnosis, your healthcare provider
- Will take your medical history and ask about your symptoms
- Will do a physical exam, including checking your wrist strength and range of motion
- May do an x-ray or other imaging test
- May do blood tests
What are the treatments for wrist injuries and disorders?
Treatments for wrist pain depends on the type of injury or disorder. They may include
- Resting your wrist
- Wearing a wrist brace or cast
- Pain relievers
- Cortisone shots
- Physical therapy
Can wrist injuries and disorders be prevented?
To try to prevent wrist problems, you can
- Use wrist guards, when doing sports that put you at risk for wrist injuries
- In the workplace, perform stretching exercises and take frequent rest breaks. You should also pay attention to ergonomics to make sure that you are using the proper wrist position while working.
- Make sure that you get enough calcium and vitamin D to keep your bones strong
General Equivalence Map Definitions
The ICD-10 and ICD-9 GEMs are used to facilitate linking between the diagnosis codes in ICD-9-CM and the new ICD-10-CM code set. The GEMs are the raw material from which providers, health information vendors and payers can derive specific applied mappings to meet their needs.
- Approximate Flag - The approximate flag is on, indicating that the relationship between the code in the source system and the code in the target system is an approximate equivalent.
- No Map Flag - The no map flag indicates that a code in the source system is not linked to any code in the target system.
- Combination Flag - The combination flag indicates that more than one code in the target system is required to satisfy the full equivalent meaning of a code in the source system.