Q79.2 - Exomphalos
|Status:||Valid for Submission|
Q79.2 is a billable ICD-10 code used to specify a medical diagnosis of exomphalos. The code is valid during the fiscal year 2023 from October 01, 2022 through September 30, 2023 for the submission of HIPAA-covered transactions. The code is exempt from present on admission (POA) reporting for inpatient admissions to general acute care hospitals.
The following clinical terms are approximate synonyms or lay terms that might be used to identify the correct diagnosis code:
- Congenital omphalocele
- Congenital omphalocele
- Congenital omphalocele, diaphragmatic hernia, cardiovascular anomalies, radial ray defect syndrome
- Donnai-Barrow syndrome
- Familial omphalocele syndrome with facial dysmorphism
- Irreducible umbilical hernia
- Lethal omphalocele with cleft palate syndrome
- Omphalocele - irreducible
- Omphalocele with obstruction
- Shprintzen Goldberg omphalocele syndrome
Tabular List of Diseases and Injuries
The Tabular List of Diseases and Injuries is a list of ICD-10 codes, organized "head to toe" into chapters and sections with coding notes and guidance for inclusions, exclusions, descriptions and more. The following references are applicable to this diagnosis code:
Inclusion TermsInclusion Terms
These terms are the conditions for which that code is to be used. The terms may be synonyms of the code title, or, in the case of "other specified" codes, the terms are a list of the various conditions assigned to that code. The inclusion terms are not necessarily exhaustive. Additional terms found only in the Alphabetic Index may also be assigned to a code.
Type 1 ExcludesType 1 Excludes
A type 1 excludes note is a pure excludes note. It means "NOT CODED HERE!" An Excludes1 note indicates that the code excluded should never be used at the same time as the code above the Excludes1 note. An Excludes1 is used when two conditions cannot occur together, such as a congenital form versus an acquired form of the same condition.
- umbilical hernia K42
Index to Diseases and Injuries References
The Index to Diseases and Injuries is an alphabetical listing of medical terms, with each term mapped to one or more ICD-10 code(s). The following references for this diagnosis code are found in the injuries and diseases index:
- - Exomphalos - Q79.2
- - Omphalocele - Q79.2
- - Sarcoepiplomphalocele - Q79.2
Present on Admission (POA)
Q79.2 is exempt from POA reporting - The Present on Admission (POA) indicator is used for diagnosis codes included in claims involving inpatient admissions to general acute care hospitals. POA indicators must be reported to CMS on each claim to facilitate the grouping of diagnoses codes into the proper Diagnostic Related Groups (DRG). CMS publishes a listing of specific diagnosis codes that are exempt from the POA reporting requirement. Review other POA exempt codes here.
CMS POA Indicator Options and Definitions
|POA Indicator Code||POA Reason for Code||CMS will pay the CC/MCC DRG?|
|Y||Diagnosis was present at time of inpatient admission.||YES|
|N||Diagnosis was not present at time of inpatient admission.||NO|
|U||Documentation insufficient to determine if the condition was present at the time of inpatient admission.||NO|
|W||Clinically undetermined - unable to clinically determine whether the condition was present at the time of inpatient admission.||YES|
|1||Unreported/Not used - Exempt from POA reporting.||NO|
Convert to ICD-9 Code
|Source ICD-10 Code||Target ICD-9 Code|
|Q79.2||756.72 - Omphalocele|
What are birth defects?
A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of pregnancy. One out of every 33 babies in the United States is born with a birth defect.
A birth defect may affect how the body looks, works, or both. Some birth defects like cleft lip or neural tube defects are structural problems that can be easy to see. Others, like heart disease, are found using special tests. Birth defects can range from mild to severe. How a birth defect affects a child's life depends mostly on which organ or body part is involved and how severe the defect is.
What causes birth defects?
For some birth defects, researchers know the cause. But for many birth defects, the exact cause is unknown. Researchers think that most birth defects are caused by a complex mix of factors, which can include:
- Genetics. One or more genes might have a change or mutation that prevents them from working properly. For example, this happens in Fragile X syndrome. With some defects, a gene or part of the gene might be missing.
- Chromosomal problems. In some cases, a chromosome or part of a chromosome might be missing. This is what happens in Turner syndrome. In other cases, such as with Down syndrome, the child has an extra chromosome.
- Exposures to medicines, chemicals, or other toxic substances. For example, alcohol misuse can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.
- Infections during pregnancy. For example, infection with Zika virus during pregnancy can cause a serious defect in the brain.
- Lack of certain nutrients. Not getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy is a key factor in causing neural tube defects.
Who is at risk of having a baby with birth defects?
Certain factors may might increase the chances of having a baby with a birth defect, such as:
- Smoking, drinking alcohol, or taking certain "street" drugs during pregnancy
- Having certain medical conditions, such as obesity or uncontrolled diabetes, before and during pregnancy
- Taking certain medicines
- Having someone in your family with a birth defect. To learn more about your risk of having a baby with a birth defect, you can talk with a genetic counselor,
- Being an older mother, typically over the age of 34 years
How are birth defects diagnosed?
Health care providers can diagnose some birth defects during pregnancy, using prenatal testing. That's why it important to get regular prenatal care.
Other birth defects may not be found until after the baby is born. Providers may find them through newborn screening. Some defects, such as club foot, are obvious right away. Other times, the health care provider may not discover a defect until later in life, when the child has symptoms.
What are the treatments for birth defects?
Children with birth defects often need special care and treatments. Because the symptoms and problems caused by birth defects vary, the treatments also vary. Possible treatments may include surgery, medicines, assistive devices, physical therapy, and speech therapy.
Often, children with birth defects need a variety of services and may need to see several specialists. The primary health care provider can coordinate the special care that the child needs.
Can birth defects be prevented?
Not all birth defects can be prevented. But there are things you can do before and during pregnancy to increase your chance of having a healthy baby:
- Start prenatal care as soon as you think you might be pregnant, and see your health care provider regularly during pregnancy
- Get 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid every day. If possible, you should start taking it at least one month before you get pregnant.
- Don't drink alcohol, smoke, or use "street" drugs
- Talk to your health care provider about any medicines you are taking or thinking about taking. This includes prescription and over-the-counter medicines, as well as dietary or herbal supplements.
- Learn how to prevent infections during pregnancy
- If you have any medical conditions, try to get them under control before you get pregnant
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
[Learn More in MedlinePlus]
Abdominal wall defect
An abdominal wall defect is an opening in the abdomen through which various abdominal organs can protrude. This opening varies in size and can usually be diagnosed early in fetal development, typically between the tenth and fourteenth weeks of pregnancy. There are two main types of abdominal wall defects: omphalocele and gastroschisis. Omphalocele is an opening in the center of the abdominal wall where the umbilical cord meets the abdomen. Organs (typically the intestines, stomach, and liver) protrude through the opening into the umbilical cord and are covered by the same protective membrane that covers the umbilical cord. Gastroschisis is a defect in the abdominal wall, usually to the right of the umbilical cord, through which the large and small intestines protrude (although other organs may sometimes bulge out). There is no membrane covering the exposed organs in gastroschisis.
Fetuses with omphalocele may grow slowly before birth (intrauterine growth retardation) and they may be born prematurely. Individuals with omphalocele frequently have multiple birth defects, such as a congenital heart defect. Additionally, underdevelopment of the lungs is often associated with omphalocele because the abdominal organs normally provide a framework for chest wall growth. When those organs are misplaced, the chest wall does not form properly, providing a smaller than normal space for the lungs to develop. As a result, many infants with omphalocele have respiratory insufficiency and may need to be supported with a machine to help them breathe (mechanical ventilation). Rarely, affected individuals who have breathing problems in infancy experience recurrent lung infections or asthma later in life. Affected infants often have gastrointestinal problems including a backflow of stomach acids into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux) and feeding difficulty; these problems can persist even after treatment of omphalocele. Large omphaloceles or those associated with multiple additional health problems are more often associated with fetal death than cases in which omphalocele occurs alone (isolated).
Omphalocele is a feature of many genetic syndromes. Nearly half of individuals with omphalocele have a condition caused by an extra copy of one of the chromosomes in each of their cells (trisomy). Up to one-third of people born with omphalocele have a genetic condition called Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Affected individuals may have additional signs and symptoms associated with these genetic conditions.
Individuals who have gastroschisis rarely have other birth defects and seldom have chromosome abnormalities or a genetic condition. Most affected individuals experience intrauterine growth retardation and are small at birth; many affected infants are born prematurely.
With gastroschisis, the protruding organs are not covered by a protective membrane and are susceptible to damage due to direct contact with amniotic fluid in the womb. Components of the amniotic fluid may trigger immune responses and inflammatory reactions against the intestines that can damage the tissue. Constriction around exposed organs at the abdominal wall opening late in fetal development may also contribute to organ injury. Intestinal damage causes impairment of the muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract (peristalsis) in most children with gastroschisis. In these individuals, peristalsis usually improves in a few months and intestinal muscle contractions normalize. Rarely, children with gastroschisis have a narrowing or absence of a portion of intestine (intestinal atresia) or twisting of the intestine. After birth, these intestinal malformations can lead to problems with digestive function, further loss of intestinal tissue, and a condition called short bowel syndrome that occurs when areas of the small intestine are missing, causing dehydration and poor absorption of nutrients. Depending on the severity of the condition, intravenous feedings (parenteral nutrition) may be required.
The health of an individual with gastroschisis depends largely on how damaged his or her intestine was before birth. When the abdominal wall defect is repaired and normal intestinal function is recovered, the vast majority of affected individuals have no health problems related to the repaired defect later in life.
[Learn More in MedlinePlus]
- FY 2023 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2022 through 9/30/2023
- FY 2022 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2021 through 9/30/2022
- FY 2021 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2020 through 9/30/2021
- FY 2020 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2019 through 9/30/2020
- FY 2019 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2018 through 9/30/2019
- FY 2018 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2017 through 9/30/2018
- FY 2017 - No Change, effective from 10/1/2016 through 9/30/2017
- FY 2016 - New Code, effective from 10/1/2015 through 9/30/2016 (First year ICD-10-CM implemented into the HIPAA code set)