Information for Patients
Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. You can also have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes.
Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes.
Blood tests can show if you have diabetes. One type of test, the A1C, can also check on how you are managing your diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor your blood glucose level and take medicine if prescribed.
NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Uncommon Infant and Newborn Problems
It can be scary when your baby is sick, especially when it is not an everyday problem like a cold or a fever. You may not know whether the problem is serious or how to treat it. If you have concerns about your baby's health, call your health care provider right away.
Learning information about your baby's condition can help ease your worry. Do not be afraid to ask questions about your baby's care. By working together with your health care provider, you make sure that your baby gets the best care possible.
Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus is a type of diabetes that first appears within the first 6 months of life and persists throughout the lifespan. This form of diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) resulting from a shortage of the hormone insulin. Insulin controls how much glucose (a type of sugar) is passed from the blood into cells for conversion to energy.Individuals with permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus experience slow growth before birth (intrauterine growth retardation). Affected infants have hyperglycemia and an excessive loss of fluids (dehydration) and are unable to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive).In some cases, people with permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus also have certain neurological problems, including developmental delay and recurrent seizures (epilepsy). This combination of developmental delay, epilepsy, and neonatal diabetes is called DEND syndrome. Intermediate DEND syndrome is a similar combination but with milder developmental delay and without epilepsy.A small number of individuals with permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus have an underdeveloped pancreas. Because the pancreas produces digestive enzymes as well as secreting insulin and other hormones, affected individuals experience digestive problems such as fatty stools and an inability to absorb fat-soluble vitamins.