Information for Patients
A miscarriage is an unexpected loss of pregnancy before the 20th week of pregnancy. Most miscarriages happen very early in the pregnancy, often before a woman even knows she is pregnant.
Factors that may contribute to miscarriage include
- A genetic problem with the fetus
- Problems with the uterus or cervix
- Chronic diseases, such as polycystic ovary syndrome
Signs of a miscarriage include vaginal spotting, abdominal pain or cramping, and fluid or tissue passing from the vagina. Bleeding can be a symptom of miscarriage, but many women also have it in early pregnancy and don't miscarry. To be sure, contact your health care provider right away if you have bleeding.
Women who miscarry early in their pregnancy usually do not need any treatment. In some cases, there is tissue left in the uterus. Doctors use a procedure called a dilatation and curettage (D&C) or medicines to remove the tissue.
Counseling may help you cope with your grief. Later, if you do decide to try again, work closely with your health care provider to lower the risks. Many women who have a miscarriage go on to have healthy babies.
NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Shock happens when not enough blood and oxygen can get to your organs and tissues. It causes very low blood pressure and may be life-threatening. It often happens along with a serious injury.
There are several kinds of shock. Hypovolemic shock happens when you lose a lot of blood or fluids. Causes include internal or external bleeding, dehydration, burns, and severe vomiting and/or diarrhea. Septic shock is caused by infections in the bloodstream. A severe allergic reaction can cause anaphylactic shock. An insect bite or sting might cause it. Cardiogenic shock happens when the heart cannot pump blood effectively. This may happen after a heart attack. Neurogenic shock is caused by damage to the nervous system.
Symptoms of shock include
- Confusion or lack of alertness
- Loss of consciousness
- Sudden and ongoing rapid heartbeat
- Pale skin
- A weak pulse
- Rapid breathing
- Decreased or no urine output
- Cool hands and feet
Shock is a life-threatening medical emergency and it is important to get help right away. Treatment of shock depends on the cause.
NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute