Information for Patients
Menstruation, or period, is normal vaginal bleeding that occurs as part of a woman's monthly cycle. Every month, your body prepares for pregnancy. If no pregnancy occurs, the uterus, or womb, sheds its lining. The menstrual blood is partly blood and partly tissue from inside the uterus. It passes out of the body through the vagina.
Periods usually start between age 11 and 14 and continue until menopause at about age 51. They usually last from three to five days. Besides bleeding from the vagina, you may have
- Abdominal or pelvic cramping pain
- Lower back pain
- Bloating and sore breasts
- Food cravings
- Mood swings and irritability
- Headache and fatigue
Premenstrual syndrome, or PMS, is a group of symptoms that start before the period. It can include emotional and physical symptoms.
Consult your health care provider if you have big changes in your cycle. They may be signs of other problems that should be treated.
NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Vaginal problems are some of the most common reasons women go to the doctor. They may have symptoms such as
- Abnormal bleeding
One common problem is vaginitis, an inflammation of the vagina. Other problems that affect the vagina include sexually transmitted diseases, vaginal cancer, and vulvar cancer. Treatment of vaginal problems depends on the cause.
The vulva is the external part of a woman's genitals. Some problems you can have with the vulvar area include
- Vaginitis or vulvovaginitis, swelling or infection of the vulva and vagina
- Skin problems due to allergy
- Vulvar cancer
- Vulvodynia, or vulvar pain
Symptoms may include redness, itching, pain, or cracks in the skin. Treatment depends on the cause.