Information for Patients
The bladder is a hollow organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Many conditions can affect your bladder. Some common ones are
- Cystitis - inflammation of the bladder, often from an infection
- Urinary incontinence - loss of bladder control
- Overactive bladder - a condition in which the bladder squeezes urine out at the wrong time
- Interstitial cystitis - a chronic problem that causes bladder pain and frequent, urgent urination
- Bladder cancer
Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x-rays, and an examination of the bladder wall with a scope called a cystoscope. Treatment depends on the cause of the problem. It may include medicines and, in severe cases, surgery.
NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
A fistula is an abnormal connection between two parts inside of the body. Fistulas may develop between different organs, such as between the esophagus and the windpipe or the bowel and the vagina. They can also develop between two blood vessels, such as between an artery and a vein or between two arteries.
Some people are born with a fistula. Other common causes of fistulas include
- Complications from surgery
- Diseases, such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
Treatment depends on the cause of the fistula, where it is, and how bad it is. Some fistulas will close on their own. In some cases, you may need antibiotics and/or surgery.
Vaginal problems are some of the most common reasons women go to the doctor. They may have symptoms such as
- Abnormal bleeding
One common problem is vaginitis, an inflammation of the vagina. Other problems that affect the vagina include sexually transmitted diseases, vaginal cancer, and vulvar cancer. Treatment of vaginal problems depends on the cause.