Information for Patients
Infertility is a term doctors use if a man hasn't been able to get a woman pregnant after at least one year of trying. Causes of male infertility include
- Physical problems with the testicles
- Blockages in the ducts that carry sperm
- Hormone problems
- A history of high fevers or mumps
- Genetic disorders
- Lifestyle or environmental factors
About a third of the time, infertility is because of a problem with the man. One third of the time, it is a problem with the woman. Sometimes no cause can be found.
If you suspect you are infertile, see your doctor. There are tests that may tell if you have fertility problems. When it is possible to find the cause, treatments may include medicines, surgery, or assisted reproductive technology. Happily, many couples treated for infertility are able to have babies.
NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
- Semen analysis (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Testicular biopsy (Medical Encyclopedia)
Also called: Brachytherapy, Radiotherapy
Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from spreading. About half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, from radioactive substances that a doctor places inside your body. The type of radiation therapy you receive depends on many factors, including
- The type of cancer
- The size of the cancer
- The cancer's location in the body
- How close the cancer is to normal tissues that are sensitive to radiation
- How far into the body the radiation needs to travel
- Your general health and medical history
- Whether you will have other types of cancer treatment
- Other factors, such as your age and other medical conditions
Radiation therapy can damage normal cells as well as cancer cells. Treatment must be carefully planned to minimize side effects. Common side effects include skin changes and fatigue. Other side effects depend on the part of your body being treated.
Sometimes radiation is used with other treatments, like surgery or chemotherapy.
NIH: National Cancer Institute
- Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: What to Do about Changes When You Urinate - NIH - Easy-to-Read (National Cancer Institute)
- Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: What to Do about Feeling Sick to Your Stomach and Throwing Up (Nausea and Vomiting) - NIH - Easy-to-Read (National Cancer Institute)
- Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: What to Do When You Have Loose Stools (Diarrhea) - NIH - Easy-to-Read (National Cancer Institute)
- Oral mucositis (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Radiation enteritis (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Radiation therapy (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Radiation therapy -- skin care (Medical Encyclopedia)
- What to Know about Brachytherapy (A Type of Internal Radiation Therapy) - NIH - Easy-to-Read (National Cancer Institute)
- What to Know about External Beam Radiation Therapy - NIH - Easy-to-Read (National Cancer Institute)
General Equivalence Map Definitions
The ICD-10 and ICD-9 GEMs are used to facilitate linking between the diagnosis codes in ICD-9-CM and the new ICD-10-CM code set. The GEMs are the raw material from which providers, health information vendors and payers can derive specific applied mappings to meet their needs.
- Approximate Flag - The approximate flag is on, indicating that the relationship between the code in the source system and the code in the target system is an approximate equivalent.
- No Map Flag - The no map flag indicates that a code in the source system is not linked to any code in the target system.
- Combination Flag - The combination flag indicates that more than one code in the target system is required to satisfy the full equivalent meaning of a code in the source system.