Diagnosis Code M08.0
Information for Medical Professionals
References found for the code M08.0 in the Tabular List of Diseases and Injuries:
- Inclusion Terms:
- Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis WITH or WITH out rheumatoid factor
Information for Patients
Also called: Childhood arthritis, JRA, Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Still's disease
Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but is more common in the knees, hands, and feet. In some cases it can affect internal organs as well.
The most common type of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting children.
One early sign of JA may be limping in the morning. Symptoms can come and go. Some children have just one or two flare-ups. Others have symptoms that never go away. JA can cause growth problems and eye inflammation in some children.
No one knows exactly what causes JA. Most types are autoimmune disorders. This means that your immune system, which normally helps your body fight infection, attacks your body's own tissues.
JA can be hard to diagnose. Your health care provider may do a physical exam, lab tests, and x-rays. A team of providers usually treats JA. Medicines and physical therapy can help maintain movement and reduce swelling and pain. They may also help prevent and treat complications.
NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
- Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (Medical Encyclopedia)
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint inflammation (arthritis) that first appears before the age of 16. This condition is an autoimmune disorder, which means that the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's organs and tissues, in this case the joints.Researchers have described seven types of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The types are distinguished by their signs and symptoms, the number of joints affected, the results of laboratory tests, and the family history.Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis causes inflammation in one or more joints. A high daily fever that lasts at least 2 weeks either precedes or accompanies the arthritis. Individuals with systemic arthritis may also have a skin rash or enlargement of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), liver (hepatomegaly), or spleen (splenomegaly).Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (also known as oligoarthritis) has no features other than joint inflammation. Oligoarthritis is marked by the occurrence of arthritis in four or fewer joints in the first 6 months of the disease. It is divided into two subtypes depending on the course of disease. If the arthritis is confined to four or fewer joints after 6 months, then the condition is classified as persistent oligoarthritis. If more than four joints are affected after 6 months, this condition is classified as extended oligoarthritis.Rheumatoid factor positive polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (also known as polyarthritis, rheumatoid factor positive) causes inflammation in five or more joints within the first 6 months of the disease. Individuals with this condition also have a positive blood test for proteins called rheumatoid factors. This type of arthritis closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis as seen in adults.Rheumatoid factor negative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (also known as polyarthritis, rheumatoid factor negative) is also characterized by arthritis in five or more joints within the first 6 months of the disease. Individuals with this type, however, test negative for rheumatoid factor in the blood.Psoriatic juvenile idiopathic arthritis involves arthritis that usually occurs in combination with a skin disorder called psoriasis. Psoriasis is a condition characterized by patches of red, irritated skin that are often covered by flaky white scales. Some affected individuals develop psoriasis before arthritis while others first develop arthritis. Other features of psoriatic arthritis include abnormalities of the fingers and nails or eye problems.Enthesitis-related juvenile idiopathic arthritis is characterized by tenderness where the bone meets a tendon, ligament or other connective tissue. This tenderness, known as enthesitis, accompanies the joint inflammation of arthritis. Enthesitis-related arthritis may also involve inflammation in parts of the body other than the joints.The last type of juvenile idiopathic arthritis is called undifferentiated arthritis. This classification is given to affected individuals who do not fit into any of the above types or who fulfill the criteria for more than one type of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease that causes chronic abnormal inflammation, primarily affecting the joints. The most common signs and symptoms are pain, swelling, and stiffness of the joints. Small joints in the hands and feet are involved most often, although larger joints (such as the shoulders, hips, and knees) may become involved later in the disease. Joints are typically affected in a symmetrical pattern; for example, if joints in the hand are affected, both hands tend to be involved. People with rheumatoid arthritis often report that their joint pain and stiffness is worse when getting out of bed in the morning or after a long rest.Rheumatoid arthritis can also cause inflammation of other tissues and organs, including the eyes, lungs, and blood vessels. Additional signs and symptoms of the condition can include a loss of energy, a low fever, weight loss, and a shortage of red blood cells (anemia). Some affected individuals develop rheumatoid nodules, which are firm lumps of noncancerous tissue that can grow under the skin and elsewhere in the body.The signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis usually appear in mid- to late adulthood. Many affected people have episodes of symptoms (flares) followed by periods with no symptoms (remissions) for the rest of their lives. In severe cases, affected individuals have continuous health problems related to the disease for many years. The abnormal inflammation can lead to severe joint damage, which limits movement and can cause significant disability.
General Equivalence Map Definitions
The ICD-10 and ICD-9 GEMs are used to facilitate linking between the diagnosis codes in ICD-9-CM and the new ICD-10-CM code set. The GEMs are the raw material from which providers, health information vendors and payers can derive specific applied mappings to meet their needs.
- Approximate Flag - The approximate flag is on, indicating that the relationship between the code in the source system and the code in the target system is an approximate equivalent.
- No Map Flag - The no map flag indicates that a code in the source system is not linked to any code in the target system.
- Combination Flag - The combination flag indicates that more than one code in the target system is required to satisfy the full equivalent meaning of a code in the source system.
Index of Diseases and Injuries Definitions
- And - The word "and" should be interpreted to mean either "and" or "or" when it appears in a title.
- Code also note - A "code also" note instructs that two codes may be required to fully describe a condition, but this note does not provide sequencing direction.
- Code first - Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology. For such conditions, the ICD-10-CM has a coding convention that requires the underlying condition be sequenced first followed by the manifestation. Wherever such a combination exists, there is a "use additional code" note at the etiology code, and a "code first" note at the manifestation code. These instructional notes indicate the proper sequencing order of the codes, etiology followed by manifestation.
- Type 1 Excludes Notes - A type 1 Excludes note is a pure excludes note. It means "NOT CODED HERE!" An Excludes1 note indicates that the code excluded should never be used at the same time as the code above the Excludes1 note. An Excludes1 is used when two conditions cannot occur together, such as a congenital form versus an acquired form of the same condition.
- Type 2 Excludes Notes - A type 2 Excludes note represents "Not included here". An excludes2 note indicates that the condition excluded is not part of the condition represented by the code, but a patient may have both conditions at the same time. When an Excludes2 note appears under a code, it is acceptable to use both the code and the excluded code together, when appropriate.
- Includes Notes - This note appears immediately under a three character code title to further define, or give examples of, the content of the category.
- Inclusion terms - List of terms is included under some codes. These terms are the conditions for which that code is to be used. The terms may be synonyms of the code title, or, in the case of "other specified" codes, the terms are a list of the various conditions assigned to that code. The inclusion terms are not necessarily exhaustive. Additional terms found only in the Alphabetic Index may also be assigned to a code.
- NEC "Not elsewhere classifiable" - This abbreviation in the Alphabetic Index represents "other specified". When a specific code is not available for a condition, the Alphabetic Index directs the coder to the "other specified” code in the Tabular List.
- NOS "Not otherwise specified" - This abbreviation is the equivalent of unspecified.
- See - The "see" instruction following a main term in the Alphabetic Index indicates that another term should be referenced. It is necessary to go to the main term referenced with the "see" note to locate the correct code.
- See Also - A "see also" instruction following a main term in the Alphabetic Index instructs that there is another main term that may also be referenced that may provide additional Alphabetic Index entries that may be useful. It is not necessary to follow the "see also" note when the original main term provides the necessary code.
- 7th Characters - Certain ICD-10-CM categories have applicable 7th characters. The applicable 7th character is required for all codes within the category, or as the notes in the Tabular List instruct. The 7th character must always be the 7th character in the data field. If a code that requires a 7th character is not 6 characters, a placeholder X must be used to fill in the empty characters.
- With - The word "with" should be interpreted to mean "associated with" or "due to" when it appears in a code title, the Alphabetic Index, or an instructional note in the Tabular List. The word "with" in the Alphabetic Index is sequenced immediately following the main term, not in alphabetical order.
Present on Admission
The Present on Admission (POA) indicator is used for diagnosis codes included in claims involving inpatient admissions to general acute care hospitals. POA indicators must be reported to CMS on each claim to facilitate the grouping of diagnoses codes into the proper Diagnostic Related Groups (DRG). CMS publishes a listing of specific diagnosis codes that are exempt from the POA reporting requirement.