Information for Patients
Also called: MD
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of more than 30 inherited diseases. They all cause muscle weakness and muscle loss. Some forms of MD appear in infancy or childhood. Others may not appear until middle age or later. The different types can vary in whom they affect, which muscles they affect, and what the symptoms are. All forms of MD grow worse as the person's muscles get weaker. Most people with MD eventually lose the ability to walk.
There is no cure for muscular dystrophy. Treatments can help with the symptoms and prevent complications. They include physical and speech therapy, orthopedic devices, surgery, and medications. Some people with MD have mild cases that worsen slowly. Others cases are disabling and severe.
NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
- Becker muscular dystrophy (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Creatine phosphokinase test (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Duchenne muscular dystrophy (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Muscular dystrophy (Medical Encyclopedia)
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy is a genetic condition characterized by muscle weakness that begins in adulthood, typically after age 40. The term "oculopharyngeal" refers to the eyes (oculo-) and a part of the throat called the pharynx (-pharyngeal). Affected individuals usually first experience weakness of the muscles in both eyelids that causes droopy eyelids (ptosis). Ptosis can worsen over time, causing the eyelid to impair vision, and in some cases, limit eye movement. Along with ptosis, affected individuals develop weakness of the throat muscles that causes difficulty swallowing (dysphagia). Dysphagia begins with dry food, but over time, liquids can also become difficult to swallow. Dysphagia can cause saliva to accumulate and a wet-sounding voice. Many people with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy also have weakness and wasting (atrophy) of the tongue. These problems with food intake may cause malnutrition, choking, or a bacterial lung infection called aspiration pneumonia.Individuals with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy frequently have weakness in the muscles near the center of the body (proximal muscles), particularly muscles in the shoulders, upper legs, and hips (limb-girdle muscles). The weakness slowly gets worse, and people may need the aid of a cane or a walker. Rarely, affected individuals need wheelchair assistance.Rarely, individuals have a severe form of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy with muscle weakness that begins before age 45, and have trouble walking independently by age 60. These individuals often also have disturbances in nerve function (neuropathy), a gradual loss of intellectual functioning (cognitive decline), and psychiatric symptoms such as depression or strongly held false beliefs (delusions).
General Equivalence Map Definitions
The ICD-10 and ICD-9 GEMs are used to facilitate linking between the diagnosis codes in ICD-9-CM and the new ICD-10-CM code set. The GEMs are the raw material from which providers, health information vendors and payers can derive specific applied mappings to meet their needs.
- Approximate Flag - The approximate flag is on, indicating that the relationship between the code in the source system and the code in the target system is an approximate equivalent.
- No Map Flag - The no map flag indicates that a code in the source system is not linked to any code in the target system.
- Combination Flag - The combination flag indicates that more than one code in the target system is required to satisfy the full equivalent meaning of a code in the source system.