Information for Patients
A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including
- Arthritis - inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, the joint can become severely damaged.
- Bursitis - inflammation of a fluid-filled sac that cushions the joint
- Dislocations - injuries that force the ends of the bones out of position
Treatment of joint problems depends on the cause. If you have a sports injury, treatment often begins with the RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation) method to relieve pain, reduce swelling, and speed healing. Other possible treatments include pain relievers, keeping the injured area from moving, rehabilitation, and sometimes surgery. For arthritis, injuries, or other diseases, you may need joint replacement surgery to remove the damaged joint and put in a new one.
NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
- Hypermobile joints (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Joint pain (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Joint swelling (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Joint x-ray (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Limited range of motion (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint (Medical Encyclopedia)
Sarcoidosis is a disease that leads to inflammation, usually in your lungs, skin, or lymph nodes. It starts as tiny, grain-like lumps, called granulomas. Sarcoidosis can affect any organ in your body.
No one is sure what causes sarcoidosis. It affects men and women of all ages and races. It occurs mostly in people ages 20 to 50, African Americans, especially women, and people of Northern European origin.
Many people have no symptoms. If you have symptoms, they may include
- Shortness of breath
- Weight loss
- Night sweats
Tests to diagnose sarcoidosis include chest x-rays, lung function tests, and a biopsy. Not everyone who has the disease needs treatment. If you do, prednisone, a type of steroid, is the main treatment.
NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
- ACE blood test (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Neurosarcoidosis (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Pulmonary function tests (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Sarcoidosis (Medical Encyclopedia)