Information for Patients
Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that you cannot change include
- Age - the risk rises as you get older
- Genes - two genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, greatly increase the risk. Women who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes.
- Personal factors - beginning periods before age 12 or going through menopause after age 55
Other risks include obesity, using hormone replacement therapy (also called menopausal hormone therapy), taking birth control pills, drinking alcohol, not having children or having your first child after age 35, and having dense breasts.
Symptoms of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in size or shape of the breast, and discharge from a nipple. Breast self-exams and mammography can help find breast cancer early, when it is most treatable. One possible treatment is surgery. It could be a lumpectomy or a mastectomy. Other treatments include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells.
Men can have breast cancer, too, but it is rare.
NIH: National Cancer Institute
- After chemotherapy - discharge (Medical Encyclopedia)
- BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Breast biopsy -- stereotactic (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Breast biopsy -- ultrasound (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Breast cancer (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Breast cancer staging (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Breast lump (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Breast self exam (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Hormone therapy for breast cancer (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Understanding Chemotherapy - NIH - Easy-to-Read (National Cancer Institute)
- What to Know about Brachytherapy (A Type of Internal Radiation Therapy) - NIH - Easy-to-Read (National Cancer Institute)
- What to Know about External Beam Radiation Therapy - NIH - Easy-to-Read (National Cancer Institute)
General Equivalence Map Definitions
The ICD-10 and ICD-9 GEMs are used to facilitate linking between the diagnosis codes in ICD-9-CM and the new ICD-10-CM code set. The GEMs are the raw material from which providers, health information vendors and payers can derive specific applied mappings to meet their needs.
- Approximate Flag - The approximate flag is on, indicating that the relationship between the code in the source system and the code in the target system is an approximate equivalent.
- No Map Flag - The no map flag indicates that a code in the source system is not linked to any code in the target system.
- Combination Flag - The combination flag indicates that more than one code in the target system is required to satisfy the full equivalent meaning of a code in the source system.