Information for Patients
Also called: Senility
Dementia is the name for a group of symptoms caused by disorders that affect the brain. It is not a specific disease. People with dementia may not be able to think well enough to do normal activities, such as getting dressed or eating. They may lose their ability to solve problems or control their emotions. Their personalities may change. They may become agitated or see things that are not there.
Memory loss is a common symptom of dementia. However, memory loss by itself does not mean you have dementia. People with dementia have serious problems with two or more brain functions, such as memory and language. Although dementia is common in very elderly people, it is not part of normal aging.
Many different diseases can cause dementia, including Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Drugs are available to treat some of these diseases. While these drugs cannot cure dementia or repair brain damage, they may improve symptoms or slow down the disease.
NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
- Dementia (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Dementia - behavior and sleep problems (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Dementia - daily care (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Dementia - keeping safe in the home (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Dementia and driving (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Dementia due to metabolic causes (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Mental status testing (Medical Encyclopedia)
Also called: Hemiplegia, Palsy, Paraplegia, Quadriplegia
Paralysis is the loss of muscle function in part of your body. It happens when something goes wrong with the way messages pass between your brain and muscles. Paralysis can be complete or partial. It can occur on one or both sides of your body. It can also occur in just one area, or it can be widespread. Paralysis of the lower half of your body, including both legs, is called paraplegia. Paralysis of the arms and legs is quadriplegia.
Most paralysis is due to strokes or injuries such as spinal cord injury or a broken neck. Other causes of paralysis include
- Nerve diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
- Autoimmune diseases such as Guillain-Barre syndrome
- Bell's palsy, which affects muscles in the face
Polio used to be a cause of paralysis, but polio no longer occurs in the U.S.
- Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Muscle function loss (Medical Encyclopedia)
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by bacteria. It infects the genital area, lips, mouth, or anus of both men and women. You usually get syphilis from sexual contact with someone who has it. It can also pass from mother to baby during pregnancy.
The early stage of syphilis usually causes a single, small, painless sore. Sometimes it causes swelling in nearby lymph nodes. If you do not treat it, syphilis usually causes a non-itchy skin rash, often on your hands and feet. Many people do not notice symptoms for years. Symptoms can go away and come back.
The sores caused by syphilis make it easier to get or give someone HIV during sex. If you are pregnant, syphilis can cause complications, or you could lose your baby. In rare cases, syphilis causes serious health problems and even death.
Syphilis is easy to cure with antibiotics if you catch it early. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading syphilis. The most reliable way to avoid infection is to not have anal, vaginal, or oral sex.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- Condom Fact Sheet in Brief (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Congenital syphilis (Medical Encyclopedia)
- CSF-VDRL test (Medical Encyclopedia)
- FTA-ABS test (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Neurosyphilis (Medical Encyclopedia)
- RPR test (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Syphilis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Syphilis - primary (Medical Encyclopedia)
- Syphilis and MSM (Men Who Have Sex with Men) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- VDRL test (Medical Encyclopedia)